1,197 research outputs found

    RiffleScrambler - a memory-hard password storing function

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    We introduce RiffleScrambler: a new family of directed acyclic graphs and a corresponding data-independent memory hard function with password independent memory access. We prove its memory hardness in the random oracle model. RiffleScrambler is similar to Catena -- updates of hashes are determined by a graph (bit-reversal or double-butterfly graph in Catena). The advantage of the RiffleScrambler over Catena is that the underlying graphs are not predefined but are generated per salt, as in Balloon Hashing. Such an approach leads to higher immunity against practical parallel attacks. RiffleScrambler offers better efficiency than Balloon Hashing since the in-degree of the underlying graph is equal to 3 (and is much smaller than in Ballon Hashing). At the same time, because the underlying graph is an instance of a Superconcentrator, our construction achieves the same time-memory trade-offs.Comment: Accepted to ESORICS 201

    Percolation-like Scaling Exponents for Minimal Paths and Trees in the Stochastic Mean Field Model

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    In the mean field (or random link) model there are nn points and inter-point distances are independent random variables. For 0<<0 < \ell < \infty and in the nn \to \infty limit, let δ()=1/n×\delta(\ell) = 1/n \times (maximum number of steps in a path whose average step-length is \leq \ell). The function δ()\delta(\ell) is analogous to the percolation function in percolation theory: there is a critical value =e1\ell_* = e^{-1} at which δ()\delta(\cdot) becomes non-zero, and (presumably) a scaling exponent β\beta in the sense δ()()β\delta(\ell) \asymp (\ell - \ell_*)^\beta. Recently developed probabilistic methodology (in some sense a rephrasing of the cavity method of Mezard-Parisi) provides a simple albeit non-rigorous way of writing down such functions in terms of solutions of fixed-point equations for probability distributions. Solving numerically gives convincing evidence that β=3\beta = 3. A parallel study with trees instead of paths gives scaling exponent β=2\beta = 2. The new exponents coincide with those found in a different context (comparing optimal and near-optimal solutions of mean-field TSP and MST) and reinforce the suggestion that these scaling exponents determine universality classes for optimization problems on random points.Comment: 19 page

    Epitaxial growth and surface reconstruction of CrSb(0001)

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    Smooth CrSb(0001) films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MnSb(0001) – GaAs(111) substrates. CrSb(0001) shows (2 × 2), triple domain (1 × 4) and (√3×√3)R30° reconstructed surfaces as well as a (1 × 1) phase. The dependence of reconstruction on substrate temperature and incident fluxes is very similar to MnSb(0001)

    Scaling and Universality in Continuous Length Combinatorial Optimization

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    We consider combinatorial optimization problems defined over random ensembles, and study how solution cost increases when the optimal solution undergoes a small perturbation delta. For the minimum spanning tree, the increase in cost scales as delta^2; for the mean-field and Euclidean minimum matching and traveling salesman problems in dimension d>=2, the increase scales as delta^3; this is observed in Monte Carlo simulations in d=2,3,4 and in theoretical analysis of a mean-field model. We speculate that the scaling exponent could serve to classify combinatorial optimization problems into a small number of distinct categories, similar to universality classes in statistical physics.Comment: 5 pages; 3 figure

    Routed Planar Networks

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    Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\em routes} rather than {\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting) notion of {\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions

    Ground States for Exponential Random Graphs

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    We propose a perturbative method to estimate the normalization constant in exponential random graph models as the weighting parameters approach infinity. As an application, we give evidence of discontinuity in natural parametrization along the critical directions of the edge-triangle model.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Multicritical continuous random trees

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    We introduce generalizations of Aldous' Brownian Continuous Random Tree as scaling limits for multicritical models of discrete trees. These discrete models involve trees with fine-tuned vertex-dependent weights ensuring a k-th root singularity in their generating function. The scaling limit involves continuous trees with branching points of order up to k+1. We derive explicit integral representations for the average profile of this k-th order multicritical continuous random tree, as well as for its history distributions measuring multi-point correlations. The latter distributions involve non-positive universal weights at the branching points together with fractional derivative couplings. We prove universality by rederiving the same results within a purely continuous axiomatic approach based on the resolution of a set of consistency relations for the multi-point correlations. The average profile is shown to obey a fractional differential equation whose solution involves hypergeometric functions and matches the integral formula of the discrete approach.Comment: 34 pages, 12 figures, uses lanlmac, hyperbasics, eps

    Optimal spatial transportation networks where link-costs are sublinear in link-capacity

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    Consider designing a transportation network on nn vertices in the plane, with traffic demand uniform over all source-destination pairs. Suppose the cost of a link of length \ell and capacity cc scales as cβ\ell c^\beta for fixed 0<β<10<\beta<1. Under appropriate standardization, the cost of the minimum cost Gilbert network grows essentially as nα(β)n^{\alpha(\beta)}, where α(β)=1β2\alpha(\beta) = 1 - \frac{\beta}{2} on 0<β1/20 < \beta \leq {1/2} and α(β)=1/2+β2\alpha(\beta) = {1/2} + \frac{\beta}{2} on 1/2β<1{1/2} \leq \beta < 1. This quantity is an upper bound in the worst case (of vertex positions), and a lower bound under mild regularity assumptions. Essentially the same bounds hold if we constrain the network to be efficient in the sense that average route-length is only 1+o(1)1 + o(1) times average straight line length. The transition at β=1/2\beta = {1/2} corresponds to the dominant cost contribution changing from short links to long links. The upper bounds arise in the following type of hierarchical networks, which are therefore optimal in an order of magnitude sense. On the large scale, use a sparse Poisson line process to provide long-range links. On the medium scale, use hierachical routing on the square lattice. On the small scale, link vertices directly to medium-grid points. We discuss one of many possible variant models, in which links also have a designed maximum speed ss and the cost becomes cβsγ\ell c^\beta s^\gamma.Comment: 13 page