871 research outputs found

    A modern day panopticon: using power and control theory to manage volunteer tourists in Bolivia

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    Volunteer tourism literature is yet to examine the impact of power and control practices on volunteer tourist compliancy. This paper contributes to closing this research gap by proposing and testing a new theoretical model of power and control practices. Drawing upon the previously un-synthesized theoretical contributions of Foucault (1979) and French & Raven (1959), the model presents power and control practices identified in the extant organizational literature. Using an auto-ethnographic approach, data was collected within a Bolivian volunteer-host community. Examination of results suggested mutually beneficial volunteer-host working relationships occur under ‘softer’ management practices. Our findings also offer insight into the salience of using reward-based management strategies as a control mechanism, as well as identifying two new control practices that emerged empirically. The research suggests several implications for the management of host communities towards creating more harmonious, efficient, and effective working relationships between volunteer tourists and hosts

    MAO-A and the EEG Recognition Memory Signal in Left Parietal Cortex

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    A key part of episodic memory, or memory for the events of our lives, is recognition memory. Recognition memory is the ability to remember previously encountered stimuli. Studies have linked recognition memory to the old/new effect, an EEG indicator of stimulus familiarity. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an enzyme that catalyzes monoamines, leading to the depletion of norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. MAO-A is more efficiently transcribed in individuals with a 4 repeating sequence variation (4R) of the MAO-A gene leading to less monoamine availability. As many of these monoamines have been linked to episodic memory, we hypothesized that individuals homozygous for the 4R MAO-A polymorphism would show differences in mean EEG signal amplitudes during recognition memory. EEG data was recorded as participants viewed both new words and words that had been previously presented. Our results show that mean peak amplitudes over the left parietal cortex 500-800 ms post-stimulus presentation for hits were greater than those for correct rejections, indicating the old/new effect. Critically, our results revealed an interaction between mean hit and correct rejection amplitude over the left parietal cortex and MAO-A group. Individuals homozygous for the 4R variation (the High MAO-A group) do not show an old/new effect due to increased correct rejection amplitudes. These results suggest that less monoamine availability leads to new stimuli being identified as old by the left parietal cortex

    Global board games project:a cross-border entrepreneurship experiential learning initiative

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    Entrepreneurship training and development in the context of higher education has grown tremendously over the past four decades. What began as offerings of a handful of courses aimed primarily at business planning and small business management has evolved into over 3.000 higher education institutions around the world offering degree programs and concentrations in entrepreneurship on both undergraduate and graduate levels (Morris, Kuratko and Cornwall, 2013). Universities – particularly in the USA, UK and EU – have invested into developing entrepreneurship curricula but also extra-curricular programs and infrastructure aimed at supporting enterprise development. It is consensus among educators that entrepreneurship can be taught (Kuratko, 2005). Indeed, entrepreneurship education research has become a field in its own right (Fayolle, Gailly and Lassas‐Clerc, 2006; Pittaway and Cope, 2007; Penaluna, Penaluna and Jones, 2012; Fayolle, 2013; Fayolle and Gailly, 2015; Pittaway et al., 2015; Nabi et al., 2017). As literature indicates, entrepreneurship education can have an important impact on a variety of outcomes, including entrepreneurial intentions and behaviours. Intentions are a motivation to engage in certain behaviour that is geared towards venture creation (Gibb, 2008, 2011) as well as recognition and exploitation of opportunities (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). Moreover, research has also identified the impact of entrepreneurship education on more subjective indicators such as attitudes (Boukamcha, 2015), perceived feasibility (Rauch and Hulsink, 2015), and skills and knowledge (Greene and Saridakis, 2008). Recently, the literature on the best practices in entrepreneurship education has centred on the importance of experiential learning allowing students to create knowledge from their interactions with the environment (Kolb, 1984). The key to effective experiential learning is engaging students individually and socially in a situation that enables them to interact with elements of the entrepreneurial context thus moving them away from text-driven to action-driven learning mode (Morris, Kuratko and Cornwall, 2013). Increasingly, digital technologies have been leveraged to create a learning environment that provides opportunities for experiential learning (Onyema and Daniil, 2017). This chapter provides findings of a study related to the development and implementation of a collaborative, digitally supported simulation project aimed at enhancing entrepreneurial social skills in an international context

    Corporate social responsibility:reviewed, rated, revised

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    Purpose: Critical literature review of CSR research in both general management and hospitality management literature. Discusses trends,commonalities, and inconsistencies to better understand the state of contemporary scholarship, and calls for a context-specific conceptual engagement with the phenomenon.Design/Methodology/Approach: Systematic literature review, noting and critiquing a general tendency towards measurement of financial and other internal benefit impacts.Findings: Hospitality management is well-positioned to evaluate the opportunities and challenges of CSR, yet research has uncritically adopted the instrumental emphasis on assessing processes, perceptions, and private profitability from the general management literature, without engaging on a contextually-specific and/or theoretical level.Research limitations: CSR research is abundant and therefore difficult to summarise in one article.The primarily Anglo-American and Asian contextual bias is reflected in this review.Practical implications: Consistently inconsistent results challenge the portability of financial impact studies.Studies are needed to re-evaluate the concept of CSR as it pertains to hospitality, and measure the effectiveness of CSR activities relative to context and resource availability.Social implications: Further research into the scope of CSR in hospitality management, with an emphasis on recuperating social value, would lead to widespread positive social implications.Originality/value: This critical review offers a new perspective on CSR in the hospitality literature and industry, calling for a reconsideration of the concept in context, and formulates a working definition

    Unpacking non-profit brand heritage : creating more satisfied and committed volunteers

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    This thesis makes a five-fold contribution to knowledge in the areas of theory, context, method, and management practice. It combines brand heritage, communitas, brand image, work engagement, affective commitment and satisfaction with management to develop a new theoretical model showing empirically, the contribution of brand heritage - the history, image, symbols and story an organisation tells about its origins, evolution, and values - and the interplay between these theoretical constructs for the first time. Second, it contributes to context through empirical demonstration of the appropriateness of brand heritage and communitas to the non-profit sector. Third, contributing to method, the research applied a mixed methodology, which included the use of a formative (as opposed to reflective) measurement model for brand heritage. It also contributes through conceptualizing for the first time, brand image and volunteer engagement as higher-order measurement models. Finally, contributing to management practice, this thesis outlines to managers the importance of nurturing, and cultivating a strong brand heritage, and ensuring it is leveraged appropriately to retain and attract satisfied, and committed volunteers. The data was collected in two phases. The first was conducted via questionnaires distributed amongst Scout volunteers to test the newly developed theoretical model, while the second phase enhanced understanding through semi-structured interviews with volunteers, complementing the validated theoretical model. The data demonstrates brand heritage makes a substantial contribution to volunteer management, and can positively impact upon volunteers’ experiences, and a volunteer organisation’s ability to retain them. Furthermore, the data shows the importance of cultivating non-profit brand heritage and suggests heritage custodianship as an important, but previously unidentified area of non-profit management focus. More broadly, this thesis offers guidance to non-profit managers for retaining volunteers, and vindicates further consideration of the contribution traditionally private sector management practices can have within the non-profit sector

    Negotiation, bargaining, and discounts:generating WoM and local tourism development at the Tabriz bazaar, Iran

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    This paper examines the effects of negotiation intention, bargaining propensity, and discount satisfaction on word-of-mouth (WoM) behaviours for tourists visiting Tabriz bazaar, Iran. Data from 615-survey respondents highlight that tourists are motivated to conduct WoM behaviour when they are experientially satisfied with the opportunity to negotiate and bargain, and when they are satisfied with the discount they receive. This paper makes theoretical contributions to social exchange theory and presents managerial implications for policy-makers to generate tourism development

    Effects of synchronous music among elite endurance athletes

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    Effects of synchronous music were investigated in two field studies. In Study 1, music effects were assessed among two elite triathletes and six elite runners during three training runs. A custom-designed iPhone application was developed to record in-task RPE, feeling states, mood responses, distance run, cadence and heart rate data. Compared to the no-music condition, participants ran, on average, 7.5% and 7.2% further but reported lower RPE and more positive feelings and mood responses when running to synchronous music (d = .35) and a music-led condition (d = .29), respectively. In Study 2, nine elite ultra-distance athletes participating in 24-hr and 48-hr races listened to rotating playlists of synchronous motivational music, neutral music, audiobook and silence delivered by iPhone. During the 18-24 hr period, motivational music was associated with a 14 sec, 18 sec and 27 sec per 400-m lap improvement compared to silence (d = .39, p < .01), neutral music (d = .54, p < .001) and audio book (d = .54, p < .001) conditions, respectively. Collectively, findings supported the judicious use of music interventions among endurance athletes

    A Community of Practice Approach to Teaching International Entrepreneurship

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    With a dearth of research on international entrepreneurship pedagogy, there is a gap in knowledge on the effectiveness of educational programs, courses, and teaching methods in stimulating and promoting international entrepreneurship practice. To address the gap, this study evaluates an experiential teaching innovation in the area of international entrepreneurship, the Global Board Game project. Designed as a Community of Practice (CoP), the project provides students the opportunity to participate in the construction of their knowledge through interactions with their counterparts in other countries. A qualitative analysis of student essays indicates that the Global Board Game project is effective in helping students achieve learning outcomes, which include defining, recognizing, and evaluating international business opportunities; designing and validating a business model based on such opportunities; and creating a plan for pursuing these opportunities. Additionally, it indicates that participation in the project enhanced students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship as a career path

    Effects of the mutations Ala30 to Pro and Ala53 to Thr on the physical and morphological properties of α-synuclein protein implicated in Parkinson's disease

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    Abstractα-Synuclein (α-syn) protein has been found in association with the pathological lesions of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, mutations in the α-syn gene have been reported in families susceptible to an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. We report here that human wild-type α-syn, PD-linked mutant α-syn(Ala30Pro) and mutant α-syn(Ala53Thr) proteins can self-aggregate and form amyloid-like filaments. The mutant α-syn forms more β-sheet and mature filaments than the wild-type protein. These findings suggest that accumulation of α-syn as insoluble deposits of amyloid may play a major role in the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative diseases
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