20 research outputs found

    Presence of pesticides in edible insects: Risk to human health. The case of Mexico

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    Objective: To perform a literature review of the presence of pesticides in edible insects, main pesticides used in Mexico and to discuss the potential risk of contaminated edible insects for human consumption. Design/methodology/approach: Concise analysis of the main research topics related with the impact of pesticides on insects, through a wide review of specialized journals on insects‚Äô field. Results: The majority of edible insects are considered as a common plague in some crop varieties, causing a decrease in their production yield. As a result, farmers use mainly chemical insecticides to control this plague. Besides, farmers use also chemical herbicides and fungicides to control weeds and fungi. However, those pesticides have a negative impact on edible insects because they can be contaminated. These contaminated edible insects can be collected from different crop varieties for their use as food.   Limitations on study/implications: To conduct further research to identify and determine the pesticide levels in edible insects consumed in Mexico. Findings/conclusions: Edible insects may represent a potential risk to human health, especially when insects are wild harvested because can be contaminated with pesticides, particularly insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides

    Análisis fisicoquímico y proteínico de la pasta de chapulín (Sphenarium purpurascens Charpentier)

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    Objective: Make grasshopper paste (Gp) and incorporate it into Mole Poblano (MP), evaluating the physicochemical characteristics and protein content of this mixture. Design / methodology / approach: Grasshoppers were collected and Gp was prepared. Later, the Gp was included in the Mole Poblano paste (MP) in the following treatments: T0 = 0Gp and 100% MP, T10 = 10% Gp and 90% MP, T15 = 15% Gp and 85% MP, T20 = 20 % Gp and 80% MP, T25 = 25% Gp and 75% MP and T30 = 30% Gp and 70% MP. The treatments were subjected to physical-chemical analysis and protein content. Findings / conclusion: Treatments T0 and T10 had the highest L *. the variable ?E was clearer for T0 and was different among all the other treatments. The C * saturation index decreased between treatments. Protein content increased with the inclusion of Gp. There were no differences between treatments in pH and water activity. It is concluded that the Gp can be incorporated into the MP to improve its nutritional value and there is no drastic change in the physicochemical variables of the evaluated treatments.Objetivo: Preparar pasta de chapul√≠n (Pch) e incorporarla al mole poblano (MP), evaluando las caracter√≠sticas fisicoqu√≠micas y el contenido prote√≠nico del preparado. Dise√Īo/metodolog√≠a/aproximaci√≥n: Se colectaron chapulines y se prepar√≥ Pch. Posteriormente la harina se incluy√≥ en la pasta de MP en los siguientes tratamientos: T0= 0Ch y 100% MP, T10= 10% Pch y 90% MP, T15= 15% Pch y 85% MP, T20= 20% Pch y 80% MP, T25= 25% Pch y 75% MP y T30= 30% Pch y 70% MP. A los tratamientos se le realiz√≥ los an√°lisis f√≠sicoqu√≠micos y contenido de prote√≠na.  Hallazgos/conclusi√≥n: Los tratamientos T0 y T10 tuvieron la mayor L*. la variable ?E fue m√°s claro para T0 y fue diferente entre todos los dem√°s tratamientos. El √≠ndice de saturaci√≥n C* descendi√≥ entre los tratamientos. El contenido de prote√≠na increment√≥ con la inclusi√≥n de la Pch. No hubo diferencias entre los tratamientos en el pH y la actividad de agua. Se concluye que la Pch se puede incorporar al MP para mejorar su valor nutricional y no existe un cambio dr√°stico en las variables fisicoqu√≠micas de los tratamientos evaluados

    Nutritional characteristics of different types of eggs

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    Objective: To analyze 5 types of poultry eggs (chicken, turkey, ostrich, duck and quail) to compare their nutritional characteristics and sensory properties. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A physical analysis was performed: weight of the entire egg (weight and proportion of the albumin, yolk and shell) length and width of the entire egg, shape index, shell color, and yolk color, nutritional (determination of raw fat, protein, dry matter and ashes) and in sensory adaptation (measured through hedonic testing of adaptability through the arrangement of nine points to an individualized quantity of 97). Different types of egg used: chicken, turkey, ostrich, duck and quail. Results: The egg containing the most amount of protein was that of the duck (13.02 ¬Ī 0.46 %), while the sample containing the lowest result was that of the ostrich (9.47 ¬Ī 0.27 %). The type of egg that contained the fattest level was the duck (10.31 ¬Ī 0.75 %); on the other hand, the type of egg that demonstrated the least amount of fat was that of the chicken egg (8.28 ¬Ī 0.39 %). Results/ Findings/ Conclusion: Even though some physical differences exist in all types of eggs, they are similar and there is minimal variation in terms of their nutritional value. Therefore, these different types of eggs can be applied for consumption as substitutes for chicken eggs and as an alternative source of protein. Limitations of the study/ Implications: Lack of previous research in regard to comparisons of the types of analyzed eggs

    Calidad de la carne en corderos suplementados con tres concentraciones de zinc en una dieta energética

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    Objective: To evaluate the effect of three doses of Zn supplemented in the diet on the quality and concentration of Zn in meat. Design / methodology / approach: 3 doses of Zn were supplemented: a) 21 mg Zn / Kg of dry matter (DM) from diet only, b) Zn80 (diet + ZnSO4) and c) Zn400 (diet + ZnSO4). Twelve Katahdin lambs randomly distributed in three groups, weighing 29.72 ¬Ī 2.16 Kg and age 9 ¬Ī 1 months. The consumed DM was restricted for all lambs to 718.62 ¬Ī 10.84 g. Findings / Conclusion: The luminosity of the psoas major muscle was Zn21 = 36.50, Zn80 = 38.14 and Zn400 = 35.35 (quadratic effect, P <0.01). The redness of the psoas major muscle was between 18.81 to 19.72 and the intensity of the yellow color was from 3.63 to 3.82. The pH of the gracilis and psoas major muscles were 6.21 and 6.91 and there were no differences in pH, lightness and hardness. The water retention capacity of the gracilis muscle was Zn21 = 63.68%, Zn80 = 65.32% and Zn400 = 83.80% (linear effect, P <0.05). The 80 mg / kg dose of Zn improved the Zn content in meat.Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de tres dosis de Zn suplementado en la dieta sobre la calidad y concentraci√≥n de Zn en la carne. Dise√Īo/metodolog√≠a/aproximaci√≥n: Se suplementaron 3 dosis de Zn: a) 21 mg Zn/Kg de materia seca (MS) proveniente de la dieta solamente, b) Zn80 (dieta + ZnSO4) y c) Zn400 (dieta + ZnSO4). Doce corderos de raza Katahdin distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos, con peso de 29.72 ¬Ī 2.16 Kg y edad de 9 ¬Ī 1 meses. La MS consumida fue restringida para todos los corderos a 718.62 ¬Ī 10.84 g. Hallazgos/conclusi√≥n: La luminosidad del m√ļsculo psoas major fue Zn21 = 36.50, Zn80 = 38.14 y Zn400 = 35.35 (efecto cuadr√°tico, P < 0.01). El enrojecimiento del m√ļsculo psoas major fue entre 18.81 a 19.72 y la intensidad del color amarillo fue de 3.63 a 3.82. El pH de los m√ļsculos gracilis y psoas major fueron de 6.21 y 6.91 y no hubo diferencias en el pH, luminosidad y dureza. La capacidad de retenci√≥n de agua del m√ļsculo gracilis fue Zn21 = 63.68 %, Zn80 = 65.32 % y Zn400 = 83.80 % (efecto lineal, P < 0.05). La dosis de 80 mg/kg de Zn mejor√≥ el contenido de Zn en la carne

    Sustentabilidad económica del cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L.) en Acambay, México

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    Objetivo: evaluar la sustentabilidad econ√≥mica del cultivo de ma√≠z criollo (Zea mays L.) en Acambay, Estado de M√©xico. Dise√Īo/metodolog√≠a/aproximaci√≥n: El √°rea de estudio fue el municipio de Acambay, del estado de M√©xico. Se aplic√≥ un cuestionario a 50 productores de ma√≠z de los ejidos y comunidades agrarias de la Soledad, Pueblo Nuevo, Loma Linda, Dateje, San Pedro de los Metales, Dong√ļ y Tixmadeje. El cuestionario se bas√≥ en el m√©todo de Indicadores de Sustentabilidad de Explotaciones Agropecuarias (IDEA). La selecci√≥n de cada productor encuestado se realiz√≥ mediante el muestreo tipo bola de nieve, escogiendo el primer encuestado al azar. Resultados: El valor obtenido para el indicador ‚Äúviabilidad econ√≥mica‚ÄĚ (C1) fue 1 de 20 puntos, indicando que la ganancia derivada del cultivo de ma√≠z representa un salario m√≠nimo. El indicador ‚Äútasa de especializaci√≥n econ√≥mica‚ÄĚ (C2) obtuvo 0 puntos ya que solo se cultiva ma√≠z, por lo tanto, representa una fuente de ingreso para los productores. En el indicador ‚Äúautonom√≠a financiera‚ÄĚ (C3) el valor promedio obtenido fue 12 explicando que no existe una dependencia marcada en la compra de insumos externos para cultivar ma√≠z. El indicador ‚Äúsensibilidad a las ayudas del primer pilar de la pol√≠tica agr√≠cola com√ļn‚ÄĚ (C4) obtuvo 0 en promedio ya que la mayor√≠a de los productores no reciben apoyos gubernamentales para cultivar ma√≠z.  Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones: los resultados presentados son avances de un an√°lisis con m√°s encuestados, por lo tanto, se sugiere tomar con cautela los resultados. Los indicadores ‚Äútransmisi√≥n del capital‚ÄĚ (C5) y ‚Äúeficiencia de los procesos productivos‚ÄĚ (C6) no se evaluaron adecuadamente ya que durante la aplicaci√≥n de las encuestas los productores se negaron a proporcionar informaci√≥n detallada para evaluar estos indicadores. Hallazgos/conclusiones: la sustentabilidad econ√≥mica calculada para los productores encuestados fue de 13% lo cual es muy baja, esto se debe principalmente a que √©stos no siempre cuentan con el acceso a apoyos aplicables a la producci√≥n de ma√≠z, otro factor que contribuye a la baja sustentabilidad es que el grano de ma√≠z y los subproductos no se venden debido a bajos precios del mercado, por lo tanto, prefieren sembrar para autoconsumo, o para que los terrenos de cultivo heredados no est√©n ociosos

    Evaluación sensorial de ate hecho con pectina de cáscara de naranja

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    Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la calidad sensorial de un ate hecho con pectina de c√°scara de naranja comparado con uno elaborado con pectina industrial (control), con la finalidad de dar una alternativa de uso de este biopol√≠mero en un alimento artesanal mexicano. Dise√Īo/metodolog√≠a/aproximaci√≥n: Se realiz√≥ la extracci√≥n de pectina de la c√°scara de naranja. Se elaboraron muestras de ate control y otra elaborada con pectina de naranja; se evaluaron caracter√≠sticas f√≠sicas y sensoriales. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en color, ni en la percepci√≥n sensorial de sabor, color y textura del ate hecho de pectina de c√°scara de naranja y aquel elaborado con pectina industrial. Sin embargo, el ate de pectina de c√°scara de naranja mostr√≥ mayor adhesividad y fue m√°s fr√°gil que el control. Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones:  Se requieren m√°s estudios del efecto de adici√≥n de la pectina extra√≠da de la c√°scara de naranja para mejorar la textura del ate. Hallazgos/conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que la pectina de c√°scara de naranja puede utilizarse en la elaboraci√≥n del ate

    Beyond Human Nutrition of Edible Insects: Health Benefits and Safety Aspects

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    Nowadays, edible insects are considered an outstanding source of nutrients, primarily because they contain high-quality protein, amino acids, and vitamins. Insects are considered a promising alternative protein source towards alleviating future global food shortage problems due to their production considered as being more sustainable by using less agricultural land and water, as well as releasing a smaller amount of greenhouse gas emissions. However, other important aspects to consider about the consumption of edible insects include their health benefits and some safety aspects, which has been relatively overlooked. In this sense, edible insects contain bioactive compounds that can provide diverse bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory with a positive impact on human health. On the other hand, edible insects are a nutrient-rich food that can provide a perfect growth medium for diverse microorganisms, as well as possess some anti-nutritive factors. These two main aspects could represent food safety concerns for consumers. In this context, recent scientific evidence indicates that preservation methods, mainly thermal treatments, utilized in the cooking or processing of edible insects decreased the microbial levels and anti-nutritive factors, which suggests that edible insects do not represent a critical biological risk to humans. Besides, edible insects could have a positive effect on gut microbiota, either by their pre-biotic effect or their antimicrobial activity towards pathogens. Thus, this review is focused on studies related to the health benefits of edible insects and their isolated components, as well as discussion about potential issues related to their microbial content and anti-nutritive factors; this review will provide a synopsis on whether edible insects may be considered safe for human consumption
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