365 research outputs found

    Conjugation system and insertion sequences of the IncN plasmid R46

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    Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases are required for period maintenance of the circadian clock at high temperature in Arabidopsis

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    Protein ubiquitylation participates in a number of essential cellular processes including signal transduction and transcription, often by initiating the degradation of specific substrates through the 26S proteasome. Within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) not only help generate and maintain the supply of free ubiquitin monomers, they also directly control functions and activities of specific target proteins by modulating the pool of ubiquitylated species. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) belong to an enzymatic subclass of DUBs, and are represented by three members in Arabidopsis, UCH1, UCH2 and UCH3. UCH1 and UCH2 influence auxin-dependent developmental pathways in Arabidopsis through their deubiquitylation activities, whereas biological and enzymatic functions of UCH3 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis UCH3 acts to maintain the period of the circadian clock at high temperatures redundantly with UCH1 and UCH2. Whereas single uch1, uch2 and uch3 mutants have weak circadian phenotypes, the triple uch mutant displays a drastic lengthening of period at high temperatures that is more extreme than the uch1 uch2 double mutant. UCH3 also possesses a broad deubiquitylation activity against a range of substrates that link ubiquitin via peptide and isopeptide linkages. While the protein target(s) of UCH1-3 are not yet known, we propose that these DUBs act on one or more factors that control period length of the circadian clock through removal of their bound ubiquitin moieties, thus ensuring that the clock oscillates with a proper period even at elevated temperature

    The CONSTANS gene of arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors

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    AbstractThe vegetative and reproductive (flowering) phases of Arabidopsis development are clearly separated. The onset of flowering is promoted by long photoperiods, but the constans (co) mutant flowers later than wild type under these conditions. The CO gene was isolated, and two zinc fingers that show a similar spacing of cysteines, but little direct homology, to members of the GATA1 family were identified in the amino acid sequence. co mutations were shown to affect amino acids that are conserved in both fingers. Some transgenic plants containing extra copies of CO flowered earlier than wild type, suggesting that CO activity is limiting on flowering time. Double mutants were constructed containing co and mutations affecting gibberellic acid responses, meristem identity, or phytochrome function, and their phenotypes suggested a model for the role of CO in promoting flowering

    Induction of flowering by seasonal changes in photoperiod

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    DOF-binding sites additively contribute to guard cell-specificity of AtMYB60 promoter

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We previously demonstrated that the <it>Arabidopsis thaliana </it>AtMYB60 protein is an R2R3MYB transcription factor required for stomatal opening. <it>AtMYB60 </it>is specifically expressed in guard cells and down-regulated at the transcriptional levels by the phytohormone ABA.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing <it>AtMYB60 </it>expression, its promoter was dissected through deletion and mutagenesis analyses. By studying different versions of <it>AtMYB60 </it>promoter::GUS reporter fusions in transgenic plants we were able to demonstrate a modular organization for the <it>AtMYB60 </it>promoter. Particularly we defined: a minimal promoter sufficient to confer guard cell-specific activity to the reporter gene; the distinct roles of different DOF-binding sites organised in a cluster in the minimal promoter in determining guard cell-specific expression; the promoter regions responsible for the enhancement of activity in guard cells; a promoter region responsible for the negative transcriptional regulation by ABA. Moreover from the analysis of single and multiple mutants we could rule out the involvement of a group of DOF proteins, known as CDFs, already characterised for their involvement in flowering time, in the regulation of <it>AtMYB60 </it>expression.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These findings shed light on the regulation of gene expression in guard cells and provide new promoter modules as useful tools for manipulating gene expression in guard cells, both for physiological studies and future biotechnological applications.</p

    Divergence of regulatory networks governed by the orthologous transcription factors FLC and PEP1 in Brassicaceae species.

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    Genome-wide landscapes of transcription factor (TF) binding sites (BSs) diverge during evolution, conferring species-specific transcriptional patterns. The rate of divergence varies in different metazoan lineages but has not been widely studied in plants. We identified the BSs and assessed the effects on transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1), two orthologous MADS-box TFs that repress flowering and confer vernalization requirement in the Brassicaceae species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabis alpina, respectively. We found that only 14% of their BSs were conserved in both species and that these contained a CArG-box that is recognized by MADS-box TFs. The CArG-box consensus at conserved BSs was extended compared with the core motif. By contrast, species-specific BSs usually lacked the CArG-box in the other species. Flowering-time genes were highly overrepresented among conserved targets, and their CArG-boxes were widely conserved among Brassicaceae species. Cold-regulated (COR) genes were also overrepresented among targets, but the cognate BSs and the identity of the regulated genes were usually different in each species. In cold, COR gene transcript levels were increased in flc and pep1-1 mutants compared with WT, and this correlated with reduced growth in pep1-1 Therefore, FLC orthologs regulate a set of conserved target genes mainly involved in reproductive development and were later independently recruited to modulate stress responses in different Brassicaceae lineages. Analysis of TF BSs in these lineages thus distinguishes widely conserved targets representing the core function of the TF from those that were recruited later in evolution

    miR824-

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    A Circadian Rhythm Set by Dusk Determines the Expression of FT

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