26 research outputs found

    Towards Robust Design and Training of Deep Neural Networks

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    Currently neural networks run as software, which typically requires expensive GPU resources. As the adoption of deep learning continues for a more diverse range of applications, direct hardware implemented neural networks (HNN) will provide deep learning solutions at far lower hardware requirements. However, Gaussian noise along hardware connections degrades model accuracy, an issue this research seeks to resolve using a novel analog error correcting code (ECC). To aid in developing noise tolerant deep neural networks (DNN), this research also investigates the impact of loss functions on training. This involves alternating multiple loss functions throughout training, aiming to prevent local optimals. The effects on training time and final accuracy are then analyzed. This research investigates analog ECCs and loss function variation to allow for future noise tolerant HNN networks. ECC results demonstrate three to five decibel improvements to model accuracy when correcting Gaussian noise. Loss variation results demonstrate a correlation between loss function similarity and training performance. Other correlations are also presented and addressed

    Towards Robust Design and Training of Deep Neural Networks

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    Currently neural networks run as software, which typically requires expensive GPU resources. As the adoption of deep learning continues for a more diverse range of applications, direct hardware implemented neural networks (HNN) will provide deep learning solutions at far lower hardware requirements. However, Gaussian noise along hardware connections degrades model accuracy, an issue this research seeks to resolve using a novel analog error correcting code (ECC). To aid in developing noise tolerant deep neural networks (DNN), this research also investigates the impact of loss functions on training. This involves alternating multiple loss functions throughout training, aiming to prevent local optimals. The effects on training time and final accuracy are then analyzed. This research investigates analog ECCs and loss function variation to allow for future noise tolerant HNN networks. ECC results demonstrate three to five decibel improvements to model accuracy when correcting Gaussian noise. Loss variation results demonstrate a correlation between loss function similarity and training performance. Other correlations are also presented and addressed

    Occurrence of the Phoronid Phoronopsis albomaculata in Cocos Island, Costa Rica.

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    v. ill. 23 cm.QuarterlyThe phoronid Phoronopsis albomaculata was collected in subtidal (28‚Äď 35 m) sandy sediments in BahńĪ¬īa Chatham during a benthic survey designed to describe the biota of Cocos Island (Isla del Coco), Costa Rica, a national park and Human Heritage Site. Occurrence of this widespread species in Cocos Island is the first report of a phoronid for Costa Rican waters and is the second locality recorded for the eastern Pacific. Taxonomically significant characters (presence of an epidermal collar, extent of coiling of lophophore and nephridia) are discussed. Comparisons are made between depth and abundance of this species from Cocos Island and results of previous studies

    Depth diversity profile of polychaete worms in Bahía Chatham, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rican Pacific

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    The subtidal benthos of tropical islands has been poorly studied in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Several studies have been published on taxonomic collections from oceanic islands in the region, but ecological features and community structure are practically unknown. In the present study, composition of the polychaete community along a depth gradient from the sand bottom of Bahía Chatham, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica is analyzed. Fifty species of polychaetes belonging to 28 families were found. There is a peak in diversity, abundance and richness at 28-30m. The lowest values occurred at 50m depth with values increasing below this depth. The composition of species changed with depth with some species being found only at depths either less than or greater than 50m. This pattern can be explained in part by the location of the thermocline that occurred at around 50m depth

    Abundance patterns (1984-1987 / 1994-1998) of polychaete worms (Annelida) from an estuarine tidal flat, Pacific, Costa Rica

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    The objectives of this report are to provide an updated list of the annelid polychaete worm species found at a tropical estuarine intertidal flat, describe long term oscillations of 11 of the species, and the impact of red tides as evidenced by PCA. From 1984 to 1987 (49 dates) 14 sediment cores (17.7 cm2 ‚Äď 15 cm deep) were collected per date at low tide from a 400 m2 muddy-sand plot in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary (10o N-85o W), Pacific, Costa Rica. All cores were fixed in Rose Bengal stained formalin and sieved thru a 500 micron mesh screen. A total of 43 species of polychaetes were found and distributed among 25 families and 6600 individuals, of which 80% were represented by: Mediomastus californiensis (32.4%), Caraziella calafia (20.3%), Paraprionospio alata (9.2%), Scolotema tetraura (5.9%), Gymnonereis crosslandi (4.9%), Spiophanex duplex (3.8%), and Glycinde armigera (3.5%). M. californiensis was numerically dominant during most of the sampling dates. The Spionidae (6), Phyllodocidae (4), and Nereididae (3) were the more speciose polychaete families. Populations of all species were patchy in space and time. The abundance patterns of 11 species are illustrated for the 1984-1987 data set. These patterns may reflect declining populations at the beginning of 1984 perhaps influenced by the strong 1982-1983 ENSO event. During 1985 red tides may have influenced the abundances of polychaetes as indicated by the results of a PCA. This is the first time that population patterns of nine species of intertidal polychaetes over a three year period, and the impact of red tides on these worms are reported for this region of the eastern Pacific. General Additive Models (GAM) were applied to the abundances of M. californiensis and P. alata found during 1984-1987 and to additional data from 1994 to 1996 (28 dates) The GAM approach confirmed ealier observations of seasonal oscillations of these species during 1984- 1987, but these trends were not found during 1994-1998. Previously unnoticed underlying patterns of unknown origin were also detected by the application of GAM. The theoretical framework needed for the interpretation of results from tropical benthic surveys could improve significantly from more long term monitoring. Long term abundance data is essential to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic activities in estuaries.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el proveer una lista actualizada de las especies de gusanos an√©lidos poliquetos encontrados en una planicie tropical de entre-mareas, describir oscilaciones de largo plazo de 11 de esas especies y el impacto de mareas rojas evidenciadas por el an√°lisis de PCA. Desde 1984 a 1987 (49 fechas) 14 n√ļcleos de sedimento (17.7 cm2 ‚Äď15 cm de profundidad) fueron colectados por fecha en marea baja en un sitio fangoso-arenoso de 400 m2 en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya (10o N-85o W), Pacifico, Costa Rica. Todos los n√ļcleos fueron fijados en formalina en agua de mar tenida con Rosa de Bengala y tamizados en una malla de 500 micras de poro. Se encontr√≥ un total de 43 especies de gusanos poliquetos distribuidos entre 25 familias y 6600 individuos, de los que un 80% estaban representados por: Mediomastus californiensis (32.4%), Caraziella calafia (20.3%), Paraprionospio alata (9.2%), Scolotema tetraura (5.9%), Gymnonereis crosslandi (4.9%), Spiophanex duplex (3.8%) y Glycinde armigera (3.5%). M. californiensis fue num√©ricamente dominante durante la mayoria de las fechas de muestreo. Las Spionidae (6), Phyllodocidae (4), y Nereididae (3) fueron las familias de poliquetos con m√°s especies. Las poblaciones de todas las especies fueron irregulares en el tiempo y en el espacio. Se ilustran los patrones de abundancia de 11 de las especies para el periodo 1984-1987. Estos patrones pueden reflejar poblaciones en decadencia al inicio de 1984, tal vez influenciadas por el fuerte evento ENSO de 1982-1983. Durante 1985 las mareas rojas pueden haber influenciado las abundancias de poliquetos seg√ļn lo indican los resultados de un PCA. Esta es la primera vez para el Pac√≠fico del Este que se ilustran las oscilaciones poblacionales de nueve especies de poliquetos de entre mareas a lo largo de un per√≠odo de tres a√Īos, as√≠ como el impacto de las mareas rojas en estos gusanos. Se aplic√≥ el an√°lisis por Modelos Aditivos Generales (GAM) a las abundancias de M. californiensis y P. alata recolectados durante 1984-1987 y adicionalmente entre 1994 y 1996 (28 fechas). El enfoque GAM confirm√≥ las observaciones anteriores sobre la estacionalidad de estas especies durante 1984-1987, pero estas tendencias no fueron encontradas durante 1994-1998. Mediante el uso de GAM fueron tambi√©n detectados patrones de origen desconocido no notados anteriormente. El marco te√≥rico necesario para la interpretaci√≥n de los resultados de estudios b√©nticos tropicales puede mejorarse mediante la realizaci√≥n de m√°s monitoreos a largo plazo. Datos de abundancia de largo plazo son esenciales para evaluar los impactos de actividades antropog√©nicas en estuarios.Universidad de Costa Rica/[808-B3-113]/UCR/Costa RicaUCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Investigaci√≥n::Unidades de Investigaci√≥n::Ciencias B√°sicas::Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias del Mar y Limnolog√≠a (CIMAR)UCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Docencia::Ciencias B√°sicas::Sistema de Educaci√≥n General::Escuela de Estudios GeneralesUCR::Vicerrector√≠a de Docencia::Ciencias B√°sicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biolog√≠

    Thigh-length compression stockings and DVT after stroke

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    Controversy exists as to whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with invasive bladder cancer, despite randomised controlled trials of more than 3000 patients. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of such treatment on survival in patients with this disease

    Residual Tumor Cells That Drive Disease Relapse after Chemotherapy Do Not Have Enhanced Tumor Initiating Capacity

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    Although chemotherapy is used to treat most advanced solid tumors, recurrent disease is still the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been the focus of intense research in recent years because they provide a possible explanation for disease relapse. However, the precise role of CSCs in recurrent disease remains poorly understood and surprisingly little attention has been focused on studying the cells responsible for re-initiating tumor growth within the original host after chemotherapy treatment. We utilized both xenograft and genetically engineered mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to characterize the residual tumor cells that survive chemotherapy treatment and go on to cause tumor regrowth, which we refer to as tumor re-initiating cells (TRICs). We set out to determine whether TRICs display characteristics of CSCs, and whether assays used to define CSCs also provide an accurate readout of a cell’s ability to cause tumor recurrence. We did not find consistent enrichment of CSC marker positive cells or enhanced tumor initiating potential in TRICs. However, TRICs from all models do appear to be in EMT, a state that has been linked to chemoresistance in numerous types of cancer. Thus, the standard CSC assays may not accurately reflect a cell’s ability to drive disease recurrence

    Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Cocos Island National Park, Pacific Costa Rica

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    Linear Collider Physics Resource Book for Snowmass 2001, 2: Higgs and Supersymmetry Studies

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    This Resource Book reviews the physics opportunities of a next-generation e+e- linear collider and discusses options for the experimental program. Part 2 reviews the possible experiments on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles that can be done at a linear collider.This Resource Book reviews the physics opportunities of a next-generation e+e- linear collider and discusses options for the experimental program. Part 2 reviews the possible experiments on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles that can be done at a linear collider
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