673 research outputs found

    Bounding film drainage in common thin films

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    A review of thin film drainage models is presented in which the predictions of thinning velocities and drainage times are compared to reported values on foam and emulsion films found in the literature. Free standing films with tangentially immobile interfaces and suppressed electrostatic repulsion are considered, such as those studied in capillary cells. The experimental thinning velocities and drainage times of foams and emulsions are shown to be bounded by predictions from the Reynolds and the theoretical MTsR equations. The semi-empirical MTsR and the surface wave equations were the most consistently accurate with all of the films considered. These results are used in an accompanying paper to develop scaling laws that bound the critical film thickness of foam and emulsion films

    Study of inducer load and stress Interim report, 15 Feb. 1968 - 15 Oct. 1968

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    Literature survey, analytic formulations, and test rig designs for cavitating inducers in rocket engine turbopump

    The Addition of Bromine to Crotonic Acid and to Ethyl Crotonate under Various Conditions

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    Many chemical and physical reactions are accompanied by changes in weight of the reactants due to evaporation of liquids, evolution of gases, or adsorption of gases. Studies are made using data which show the manner in which the weight changes with time. Kinetic studies are made from a knowledge of the rate of loss or gain of a component. The drying of a precipitate to constant weight involves a loss in weight. Rates of evaporation of liquids from different types of surfaces involve changes of weight as a function of time. Several instruments and methods are used to follow weight changes. Gas buret systems are used to measure the volume of a gaseous component which is adding to or subtracting from the weight of a reactant. The ordinary analytical balance is used to follow weight changes by making intermittent weighings. This latter method involves tedious operations and interruptions of the treatment of the reactants. Effort has been put forth to devise instruments which will automatically weigh substances and record these weighings on some type of graph. Gregg and Wintle (1) devised a glass automatic electrical sorption balance. Gregg (2) later described a recording system for this type balance. Eyrand (3) reported a glass sorption balance of a somewhat different type. Duval (4) described a thermal balance that automatically records changes in weight on film. Described in this paper is an instrument attached to a modified ordinary analytical balance which automatically records on graph paper changes in weight as a function of time

    SRB Environment Evaluation and Analysis. Volume 3: ASRB Plume Induced Environments

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    Contract NAS8-37891 was expanded in late 1989 to initiate analysis of Shuttle plume induced environments as a result of the substitution of the Advanced Solid Rocket Booster (ASRB) for the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB). To support this analysis, REMTECH became involved in subscale and full-scale solid rocket motor test programs which further expanded the scope of work. Later contract modifications included additional tasks to produce initial design cycle environments and to specify development flight instrumentation. Volume 3 of the final report describes these analyses and contains a summary of reports resulting from various studies

    Germination of Silene regia Seeds from Four Sites in Lawrence County, Illinois, Following Scarification or Stratification

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    Silene regia Sims is an endangered prairie forb in Illinois where small isolated colonies are scattered. In La·wrence County, two sites (Allison Prairie and Chauncey Marsh) have fewer plants (6-23) than two other sites (Cmmty Road and Cemetery) with 26-45 plants. Information on seed germination in these isolated colonies is needed. Our goal was to evaluate seed germination of S. regia from colonies in Lawrence County, illinois. S. regia fruits were collected from these four sites on August 9 and 19, 1999. Seeds were scarified by cutting the seed coat, or they were stratified at 2 C for 12 or 15 weeks. Seeds from Chaun.cey Marsh weighed less than those from other sites. With the exception of seeds from Chauncey Marsh, scariiication increased gemrination within each site. When significant germination differences occurred due to site, they were apparent on stratified seed, where frequently Allison Prairie was highest and Chauncey Marsh was lowest. Germination clifferences between stratified and control seeds were inconsistent, although stratified seeds had up to 67% higher gemrination than control seeds when significant differences occurred. These increases in seed germination were most evident in seeds collected on August 9th and stratified for 12 weeks. Seed that was neither scarified nor stratified gemrinated after storage, indicating that scarification and stratification are not absolute gemrination requirements with after-ripened seeds. Seed germination at different sites did not correspond directly with population sizes, and multiple mechanisms were present for breaking seed donnancy in S. regia

    Frameless Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

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    Background: Frameless image-guided radiosurgery (IGRS) is a safe and effective noninvasive treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study evaluates the use of frameless IGRS to treat patients with refractory TN. Methods: We reviewed the records of 20 patients diagnosed with TN who underwent frameless IGRS treatments between March 2012 and December 2013. Facial pain was graded using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scoring system. The initial setup uncertainty from simulation to treatment and the patient intrafraction uncertainty were measured. The median follow-up was 32 months. Results: All patients\u27 pain was BNI Grade IV or V before the frameless IGRS treatment. The mean intrafraction shift was 0.43 mm (0.28-0.76 mm), and the maximum intrafraction shift was 0.95 mm (0.53-1.99 mm). At last follow-up, 8 (40%) patients no longer required medications (BNI 1 or 2), 11 (55%) patients were pain free but required medication (BNI 3), and 1 (5%) patient had no pain relief (BNI 5). Patients who did not have prior surgery had a higher odds ratio for pain relief compared to patients who had prior surgery (14.9, P = 0.0408). Conclusions: Frameless IGRS provides comparable dosimetric and clinical outcomes to frame-based SRS in a noninvasive fashion for patients with medically refractory TN

    Evaluating the discriminatory power of EQ-5D, HUI2 and HUI3 in a US general population survey using Shannon’s indices

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    OBJECTIVES: To compare quantitatively the discriminatory power of the EQ-5D, HUI2 and HUI3 in terms of absolute and relative informativity, using Shannon's indices. METHODS: EQ-5D and HUI2/3 data completed by a sample of the general adult US population (N = 3,691) were used. Five dimensions allowed head-to-head comparison of informativity: Mobility/Ambulation; Anxiety/Depression/Emotion; Pain/Discomfort (EQ-5D; HUI2; HUI3); Self-Care (EQ-5D; HUI2); and Cognition (HUI2; HUI3). Shannon's index and Shannon's Evenness index were used to assess absolute and relative informativity, both by dimension and by instrument as a whole. RESULTS: Absolute informativity was highest for HUI3, with the largest differences in Pain/Discomfort and Cognition. Relative informativity was highest for EQ-5D, with the largest differences in Mobility/Ambulation and Anxiety/Depression/Emotion. Absolute informativity by instrument was consistently highest for HUI3 and lowest for EQ-5D, and relative informativity was highest for EQ-5D and lowest for HUI3. DISCUSSION: Performance in terms of absolute and relative informativity of the common dimensions of the three instruments varies over dimensions. Several dimensions are suboptimal: Pain/Discomfort (EQ-5D) seems too crude with only 3 levels, and the level descriptions of Ambulation (HUI3) and Self-Care (HUI2) could be improved. In absence of a formal measure, Shannon's indices provide useful measures for assessing discriminatory power of utility instrument

    Measuring the effect of intimate partner violence on health-related quality of life: a qualitative focus group study

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    Abstract Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) can be measured by a wide range of instruments, many of which have been designed for specific conditions or uses. Preference-based measures assess the value individuals place on health, and are included in economic evaluations of treatments and interventions (such as cost effectiveness analysis). As economic evaluation becomes more common, it is important to assess the applicability of preference-based health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures to public health issues. This study investigated the usefulness of such instruments in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV), a public health concern that that can seriously affect quality of life. Methods The study consisted of focus groups with abused women to determine the aspects of life affected by IPV, and an analysis of existing HRQOL measures. Eight focus groups (n = 40) were conducted in which participants discussed the domains of health affected by IPV. Results were content analyzed and compared with the domains of health included in four commonly-used, preference-based HRQOL measures. Results The average focus group participant was 43 years old, unemployed, African American, with 3 children. Domains of health reported to be affected by IPV included physical functioning, emotional and psychological functioning, social functioning and children\u27s functioning. Psychological health was the most severely affected domain. The Short Form 36, the Health Utilities Index, the EuroQol 5D, and the Quality of Well-being Scale were found to vary in the degree to which they include domains of health important in IPV. Psychological health is included to a limited extent, and the spill-over effect of a condition on other family members, including children, is not included at all. Conclusion Emotional and psychological health plays an important role in the overall HRQOL of abused women but is relatively underemphasized in preference-based HRQOL measures. This may lead to an underestimation of the impact of partner violence on HRQOL when using these measures and in economic evaluations that rely thereon. Holistic measurement approaches or expanded measures that capture the far-reaching effects of IPV on HRQOL may be needed to accurately measure the effect of this condition on women\u27s health

    Reevaluating the imaging definition of tumor progression: perfusion MRI quantifies recurrent glioblastoma tumor fraction, pseudoprogression, and radiation necrosis to predict survival

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    INTRODUCTION: Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) represents the current mainstay for monitoring treatment response in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), based on the premise that enlarging lesions reflect increasing tumor burden, treatment failure, and poor prognosis. Unfortunately, irradiating such tumors can induce changes in CE-MRI that mimic tumor recurrence, so called post treatment radiation effect (PTRE), and in fact, both PTRE and tumor re-growth can occur together. Because PTRE represents treatment success, the relative histologic fraction of tumor growth versus PTRE affects survival. Studies suggest that Perfusion MRI (pMRI)–based measures of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) can noninvasively estimate histologic tumor fraction to predict clinical outcome. There are several proposed pMRI-based analytic methods, although none have been correlated with overall survival (OS). This study compares how well histologic tumor fraction and OS correlate with several pMRI-based metrics. METHODS: We recruited previously treated patients with GBM undergoing surgical re-resection for suspected tumor recurrence and calculated preoperative pMRI-based metrics within CE-MRI enhancing lesions: rCBV mean, mode, maximum, width, and a new thresholding metric called pMRI–fractional tumor burden (pMRI-FTB). We correlated all pMRI-based metrics with histologic tumor fraction and OS. RESULTS: Among 25 recurrent patients with GBM, histologic tumor fraction correlated most strongly with pMRI-FTB (r = 0.82; P < .0001), which was the only imaging metric that correlated with OS (P<.02). CONCLUSION: The pMRI-FTB metric reliably estimates histologic tumor fraction (i.e., tumor burden) and correlates with OS in the context of recurrent GBM. This technique may offer a promising biomarker of tumor progression and clinical outcome for future clinical trials

    Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20) in Healthy Volunteers and Patients Attending a Physiotherapy Clinic.

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    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the PASS-20 questionnaire for use in Libya. METHODS: Participants were 71 patients (42 women) attending the physiotherapy clinic, Ibn Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya for management of persistent pain and 137 healthy unpaid undergraduate students (52 women) from the University of Sirt, Libya. The English PASS-20 was translated into Arabic. Patients completed the Arabic PASS-20 and the Arabic Pain Rating Scales on two occasions separated by a 14-day interval. Healthy participants completed the Arabic PASS-20 on one occasion. RESULTS: The internal consistency (ICC) for pain patient and healthy participant samples yielded a good reliability for the total score, cognitive anxiety, fear of pain, and physiological anxiety. The test-retest reliability of the Arabic PASS-20 score showed high reliability for the total score (ICC = 0.93, p < 0.001), escape/avoidance (ICC = 0.93, p < 0.001), fear of pain (ICC = 0.94, p < 0.001), and physiological anxiety subscales (ICC = 0.96, p < 0.001) and good reliability for the cognitive anxiety (ICC = 0.85, p < 0.001). Inspection of the Promax rotation showed that each factor comprised of five items were consistent with the theoretical constructs of the original PASS-20 subscales. CONCLUSION: The Arabic PASS-20 retained internal consistency and reliability with the original English version and can be used to measure pain anxiety symptoms in both pain and healthy individual samples in Libya
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