19,669 research outputs found

    Embedding Digital (Information) Literacy In The First Year Curriculum: An Intervention

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    This paper describes an intervention aimed at reducing the occurrence of common weaknesses in first level work and thereby improving student performance in assessments. The project involved developing a more systematic approach to embedding information literacy (I.L.) into the first year curriculum in the Carnegie Faculty at Leeds Beckett University by combining the expertise of Subject Librarians with that of First Year tutors. It was part of a broader programme of institutional curricular change. This collaborative approach was informed by data from individual interviews with previous students and based on a dual rationale: firstly from Sadler’s (2002) call for more high impact, low stakes assessment in the first year and secondly a need to avoid creating a culture of ‘testing’ (Sambell, et al. 2013) in which students position themselves as submitting to others’ judgments rather than developing rational autonomy (Baxter-Magolda, 2003). In other words, we needed to design an assessed activity which encouraged students to engage in learning but created a supportive and collaborative approach. The embedding process together with some of the resources and tools which we developed are described in this paper as well as the respective contributions of the various participants. We explore the impact of two years of implementation based on student interviews and tutor evaluations. Recommendations and examples are provided to demonstrate how a similar approach might work elsewhere either as a local, course specific intervention or as part of an institution-wide approach to improving students’ digital literacy. Keywords: information literacy: digital literacy: first year: intervention: embedded

    Characterization of the Noise in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Depth Profiles

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    The noise in the depth profiles of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is studied using different samples under various experimental conditions. Despite the noise contributions from various parts of the dynamic SIMS process, its overall character agrees very well with the Poissonian rather than the Gaussian distribution in all circumstances. The Poissonian relation between the measured mean-square error (MSE) and mean can be used to describe our data in the range of four orders. The departure from this relation at high counts is analyzed and found to be due to the saturation of the channeltron used. Once saturated, the detector was found to exhibit hysteresis between rising and falling input flux and output counts.Comment: 14 pages, 4 postscript figures, to appear on J. Appl. Phy

    Standardization and application of microsatellite markers for variety identification in tomato and wheat

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    The present study is part of a EU project that aims to demonstrate the technical viability of STMS markers for variety identification. As examples two important European crop species, tomato and wheat were chosen. Initially, about 30-40 STMS markers were used to identify a set of 20 good markers per crop and to standardise the methodology and the interpretation of the results in different laboratories. Several systems were used for the detection of STMS polymorphisms. The selected STMS markers are being tested on 500 varieties of each species and databases are being constructed. The first comparisons of data generated by the different laboratories revealed a high degree of agreement. The causes of discrepancies between duplicate samples analysed in different laboratories and precautions to prevent them, are discussed

    Equilibrium binding energies from fluctuation theorems and force spectroscopy simulations

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    Brownian dynamics simulations are used to study the detachment of a particle from a substrate. Although the model is simple and generic, we attempt to map its energy, length and time scales onto a specific experimental system, namely a bead that is weakly bound to a cell and then removed by an optical tweezer. The external driving force arises from the combined optical tweezer and substrate potentials, and thermal fluctuations are taken into account by a Brownian force. The Jarzynski equality and Crooks' fluctuation theorem are applied to obtain the equilibrium free energy difference between the final and initial states. To this end, we sample non--equilibrium work trajectories for various tweezer pulling rates. We argue that this methodology should also be feasible experimentally for the envisioned system. Furthermore, we outline how the measurement of a whole free energy profile would allow the experimentalist to retrieve the unknown substrate potential by means of a suitable deconvolution. The influence of the pulling rate on the accuracy of the results is investigated, and umbrella sampling is used to obtain the equilibrium probability of particle escape for a variety of trap potentials.Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures, To appear in Soft Matte

    Undescribed suid remains from Bolt's Farm and other Transvaal cave deposits

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    Although individual suid specimens from other sites have been described, only Makapansgat has been treated comprehensively, but much new material has come to light in the past three decades. The University of California African Expedition worked several sites of different ages at Bolt's Farm and the material recovered includes a virtually complete, slightly compressed, skull of Phacochoerus modestus (= P. antiquus Broom 1948) from Pit 3, associated with Antidorcas recki, and also several cranial and dental fragments from Pit 14 that belong to the typical Makapansgat Potamochoeroides shawi. Bolt's Farm was the source of a cranial specimen described by Broom as "Notochoerus meadowsi" (= Metridiochoerus andrewsi); other specimens referred to this taxon and described by Shaw as from "Sterkfontein Lime Works" more probably came from Bolt's Farm as well. Broom's cranium and a pair of mandibles have closer resemblances to Metridiochoerus jacksoni of East Africa. Swartkrans has yielded both described and undescribed material referred to Phacochoerus modestus and to Metridiochoerus. Discounting Shaw's material, only one small specimen has come from the Sterkfontein Type Site, a mandible fragment of a juvenile with an incompletely formed third molar in alveolus but it can be matched remarkably closely with a specimen from Makapansgat and there is very little doubt that it belongs to Potamochoeroides shawi. An undescribed third molar from the pink breccia at Makapansgat is comparable with early Notochoerus scotti from East Africa. The status of Notochoerus capensis is reconsidered.Wenner Gren Foundatio

    Fossil proboscidean remains from Bolt's Farm and other Transvaal cave breccias

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    Proboscidean remains are very rare in the Transvaal cave breccias and the few specimens recovered are generally fragmentary but deserve description because of their potential value in correlation and dating. The best specimen is the back half of a left lower molar from Pit 7 of the University of California African Expedition's work at Bolt's Farm. It was regarded by Maglio as representing Elephas ekorensis but closer examination suggests that there are some more progressive characters and it most likely represents Elephas recki brumpti. The stump of a second molar from Bolt's farm also accords with this taxon. Makapansgat has furnished 14 fragmentary fossils, 6 of them tusk or root remains. Particularly interesting is the occurrence of a pair of cones from a molar of Anancus. The scrappy elephantid material from Makapansgat may be referred tentatively to an early stage of the Elephas recki lineage, as also a mandible fragment from Sterkfontein with the two anterior milk teeth. An anterior milk tooth from Swartkrans Member 3 exhibits broader and higher lamellae than in E. recki and most probably belongs to the more advanced E. iolensis to which most of the Vaal River elephants have been referred

    Dinofelis barlowi (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) cranial material from Bolt's Farm, collected by the University of California African expedition

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    The collections made by the University of California African Expedition in 1947-48 at Bolt's Farm, near Sterkfontein, included some fine cranial and postcranial material of Dinofelis barlowi, associated with baboon skeletons and crania suggestive of a natural trap situation. The Dinofelis crania are described and compared with other species of this genus, generally lending support to Hemmer's view of a lineage D. diastemata, D. harlowi, D. piveteaui. The age of the deposit is estimated to be in the vicinity of 2 Ma
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