28 research outputs found

    Are non-use values distance-independent? Identifying the market area using a choice modelling experiment

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    This article tests for the effect of distance on non-use values using a Choice Modelling (CM) experiment. Estimating a distance decay relationship for non-use values (NUVs) is important because it would define the market area for an environmental good, i.e. identify the limits for aggregating individual benefit estimates. In contrast to the common definition of NUVs as non-usersÕ values, the CM experiment designs the environmental attributes so that NUV changes can be disentangled from Use Value (UV) changes. The experiment also allows for testing different specification of the distance covariates. Data are obtained from a geographically representative sample. Results show that NUVs do not depend on distance. Aggregation of NUVs is based on income and individualsÕ environmental attitudes.choice modelling, non-use values, aggregation, distance, geographical sampling.

    Investigating distance effects on environmental values: A choice modelling approach

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    This paper describes a Choice Modelling experiment set up to investigate the relationship between distance and willingness to pay for environmental quality changes. The issue is important for the estimation and transfer of benefits. So far the problem has been analysed through the use of Contingent Valuation-type of experiments, producing mixed results. The Choice Modelling experiment allows testing distance effects on parameters of environmental attributes that imply different trade-offs between use and non-use values. The sampling procedure is designed to provide a Ògeographically balancedÓ sample. Several specifications of the distance covariate are compared and distance effects are shown to take complex shapes. Welfare analysis also shows that disregarding distance produces under-estimation of individual and aggregated benefits and losses, seriously hindering the reliability of costbenefit analyses.choice Modelling techniques, distance, aggregation, sampling, functional forms.

    Choice Modelling and laboratory experiments for non-market valuation: a framework

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    This paper is about combining Choice Modelling and laboratory experimentsincentive-compatible, stated preferences,pivot process, WTP/WTA disparity

    Investigating distance effects on environmental values: a choice modelling approach

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    Analysis of the relationship between distance and willingness to pay (WTP) is important for estimation and transfer of environmental benefits. Several contingent valuation (CV) studies have investigated this topic, but results are mixed. This paper describes a choice modelling (CM) application that estimates distance effects on parameters of three environmental attributes. Combinations of these attributes create different management policies for native vegetation. The CM study is based on a sampling procedure that provides a geographically balanced sample and statistical tests to choose the best specification of the distance–WTP relationship. Welfare analysis shows that disregarding distance causes under-estimation of individual and aggregated benefits and losses, seriously misdirecting resource allocation.choice modelling, geographical distance, spatial heterogeneity, stratified sample, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    A Methodological Approach to the Spatial Aggregation of Values

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    A Choice Modelling (CM) experiment is developed with the purpose of gaining some insight on how to identify the relevant population for the valuation of an environmental asset. The experiment is based on a survey of Perth residents over the values they attach to Kings Park, the largest urban park in Western Australia, 4/5 of which is native bushland. We design the experiment in order to isolate NUVs form UVs so that trade-offs between attributes of the asset imply tradeoffs between Use Values, Non-Use Values and money. One can then estimate the coefficients for each attribute and analyse the effect of distance on patterns of use. Preliminary results are obtained using data from a pre-survey trial of the questionnaire.Environmental Economics and Policy,

    Conservation policies, environmental valuation and the optimal size of jurisdictions

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    The size of a jurisdiction is crucial in determining the efficiency, equity or efficacy of environmental regulations. However, jurisdictions are usually taken to coincide with political boundaries even if environmental externalities may transcend them. This paper illustrates the design and implementation of a Choice Modelling experiment to determine the spatial distribution of environmental benefits of Kings Park (Western Australia). The objective is to understand if federal, state or local resources are the appropriate form of funding a conservation policy. Results indicate that there are interstate spillovers of benefits, hence justifying federal contributions to Kings Park. They also show that some benefits are homogeneously spread within Western Australia, and this is an indication that state funding is also appropriate. Other benefits are distance-dependent; some level of local/council funding is warrantedfederal regulation, decentralised policies, benefits spillovers, environmental valuation, choice modelling, distance

    Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger

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    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40+8-8 Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 Mo. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at ~40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One- Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over ~10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient’s position ~9 and ~16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta

    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger