198 research outputs found

    A critical assessment of the concept of europeanization in light of the state of the Union

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    This article engages with a reflexive and critical assessment of Europeanization and addresses conceptual, methodological and empirical issues related to the ways of knowledge in explaining and understanding the impact of the EU. It argues that, although it has generated an important amount of very valuable empirical research, its relevance as a specific concept is limited in two respects. The argument of this article is twofold. First, the conceptual debates in the Europeanization literature lead to the conclusion that Europeanization describes a general phenomenon of transformation and modernization, i.e a general explanandum rather than a specific explanans. Second, methodological biases have led many scholars to overestimate the impact of EU integration. Whereas short-term institutional adjustment can be easily demonstrated, the structural impact of EU integration on its Member States deserves more attention. We address the democratization of Central and Eastern Europe and the debt crisis in Southern Europe as two empirical examples for discussing the shortcomings of the central hypotheses and methodologies of the Europeanization literature

    “The presumption of guilt” in the investigation of tax evasion crimes

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    Although it is one of the fundamental principles of the criminal process, whose observance is required at all stages of the trial, and therefore in the criminal prosecution stage as well, the principle of the presumption of innocence is often "forgotten" or transformed into the "presumption of guilt" when a tax evasion crime is under investigation. The major interest in investigating these offenses is the recovery of the damage, which is why there is a need to find solvable persons who are involved in these activities. Due to the fact that most of the times it is difficult to prove their involvement, in practice one can notice a tendency to prosecute such persons for the simple fact of having purchased products or services from dummy companies. The article presents examples of judicial practice and seeks to argue the mistaken view of criminal investigation bodies in the light of European directives as well as ECJ jurisprudence

    L'état de la démocratie en Roumanie: difficultés nationales, solutions européennes

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    Twenty years since the beginning of the democratization process and four years since the accession to the European Union, the debates taking place in the Romanian public space are dominated by the rhetoric of the crisis. Based on the frame analysis, this article analyses the discourses of the main Romanian political parties, held during the 2009 European election's campaign, in order to examine the links between the images of Europe and the perceptions of the state of the Romanian democracy. The paper argues that for the Romanian political elite the European Union is a structure of economic, normative and identity opportunity. This image of Europe is shaped by their perceptions on the functioning of the Romanian democracy

    Characterization of Sea Buckthorn Extract and its effect on free and encapsulated Lactobacillus casei

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    [EN] Probiotics are bacteria that can provide health benefits to consumers and are suitable to be added to a variety of foods. In this research, viability of immobilized Lactobacillus casei in alginate with or without sea buckthorn lipid extract were studied during heat treatment and with an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The characterization of the lipid extract was also done using the UV-Vis spectrometry (UV-Vis), high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection method (HPLC-PDA), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GS-MS) and Cryo scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). During heat treatment, the entrapped probiotic cells proved high viability (>6 CFU log/g), even at temperatures above 50 degrees C. The rich in monounsaturated fatty acids sea buckthorn fraction improved the in vitro digestion passage regarding the probiotic viability. The survival of the probiotic cells was 15% higher after 2 h in the acidic medium of the simulated gastric fluid in the sample where L. casei was encapsulated with the sea buckthorn extract compared with the samples where no extract was added. Thus, this approach may be effective for the future development of probiotic-supplemented foods as foods with health welfare for the consumers.This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1255 and PN-III-P2-2.1-CI-2017-0056.Pop, O.; Dulf, F.; Cuibus, L.; Castro Giraldez, M.; Fito Suñer, PJ.; Vodnar, D.; Coman, C.... (2017). Characterization of Sea Buckthorn Extract and its effect on free and encapsulated Lactobacillus casei. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18(12):1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122513S1151812Coghetto, C. C., Flores, S. H., Brinques, G. B., & ZĂĄchia Ayub, M. A. (2016). Viability and alternative uses of a dried powder, microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum without the use of cold chain or dairy products. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 71, 54-59. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2016.03.020Sanders, M. E. (2008). Probiotics: Definition, Sources, Selection, and Uses. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(s2), S58-S61. doi:10.1086/523341Butel, M.-J. (2014). Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. MĂ©decine et Maladies Infectieuses, 44(1), 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.medmal.2013.10.002Eckburg, P. B. (2005). Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora. Science, 308(5728), 1635-1638. doi:10.1126/science.1110591Berger, R. E. (2005). Lactobacilli for Prevention of Urogenital Infections: A Review. Journal of Urology, 174(1), 165-166. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(05)60052-3Aguirre, M., & Venema, K. (2015). The art of targeting gut microbiota for tackling human obesity. Genes & Nutrition, 10(4). doi:10.1007/s12263-015-0472-4Ivey, K. L., Hodgson, J. M., Kerr, D. A., Thompson, P. L., Stojceski, B., & Prince, R. L. (2015). The effect of yoghurt and its probiotics on blood pressure and serum lipid profile; a randomised controlled trial. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 25(1), 46-51. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.07.012ChĂĄvez-Tapia, N. C., GonzĂĄlez-RodrĂ­guez, L., Jeong, M., LĂłpez-RamĂ­rez, Y., Barbero-Becerra, V., JuĂĄrez-HernĂĄndez, E., 
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    La reprĂ©sentation des intĂ©rĂȘts Ă©conomiques en Roumanie post-communiste -- science politique

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    The rotating presidency of the EU Council as a two-level game, or how the “Brussels model neutralises domestic political factors: the case of Romania

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    This article examines the Romanian rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union during the first half of 2019 as a two-level game. It shows how, despite heightened political tensions at the domestic and European level, the Romanian rotating presidency managed to fulfil its main functions. It is argued that the preparation and the conduct of the rotating presidency is not only a two-level game, but also one in which diplomats and civil servants play a central role. Their centrality in the process neutralises domestic political factors such as Eurosceptic governmental attitudes, the lack of political vision or credibility.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Central and Eastern Europe: the EU’s struggle for rule of law pre- and post-accession

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    The aim of this chapter is threefold: 1) to shed light on how the EU in general and the European Commission in particular sought to shape judicial reforms in order to strengthen the rule of law in the 2004 and 2007 enlargements; 2) to scrutinize the paths of reforms undertaken in central and eastern Europe to consolidate the independence of the judiciary in the pre-enlargement context; 3) to discuss the EU’s ability to safeguard the rule of law after accession when at the domestic level political actors seek to increase political power over judicial institutions. Organized into three parts, the chapter provides an overview of the literature and in conclusion suggests new avenues of research that can refresh academic and political debates on the conflicts generated by judicial reforms at the domestic and European level.SCOPUS: ch.binfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The politics of the rule of law in the EU polity: Actors, tools and challenges

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    Offers a summary of the EU’s rule of law debate over the last decade.Analyses a variety of challenges that the EU faces, including the migration crisis and Eurozone management.Examines the motivations and preferences of actors within various EU polities, as well as their division lines.ABOUT THIS BOOKIts rule of law crisis, the European Union could solve it on its own. In her thought-provoking book, Ramona Coman shows why the EU is largely failing in this enterprise. Analysing the politics of the rule of law of the political EU institutions and of civil society, but leaving out the Court, Coman traces the roots of the current age of dissensus. Whether the reliance on conditionality rather helps or harms for the future, one wonders. Highly recommended reading!info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    RĂ©former la justice dans un pays post-communiste: Le cas de la Roumanie

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    RĂ©former la justice dans un pays post communiste se focalise sur la formation et de la reproduction de l’institution judiciaire roumaine moderne et sur le processus de problĂ©matisation et de mise Ă  l’agenda de la question de l’indĂ©pendance de la justice dans la Roumanie postcommuniste. L’analyse de la rĂ©forme de la justice est une façon d’interroger la qualitĂ© d’une dĂ©mocratie. Le livre se penche sur la carriĂšre publique et politique de la question de l’indĂ©pendance de la justice et analyse le rĂŽle de l’Union europĂ©enne, de sa conditionnalitĂ© et des mĂ©canismes d’europĂ©anisation, les rapports entre le politique, la justice, les mĂ©dia et la sociĂ©tĂ© civile et leurs interactions avec les milieux europĂ©ens, la formation des communautĂ©s de politiques publiques, l’activisme de certains et l’immobilisme des autres. Il se prĂ©sente comme un travail de dĂ©construction des mythes relatifs Ă  l’influence de l’Union europĂ©enne et comme une application Est europĂ©enne des approches cognitives des politiques publiques. En cela, il s’adresse Ă  ceux qui analysent les mĂ©canismes d’europĂ©anisation et qui s’intĂ©ressent au rĂŽle des images, des normes, des valeurs et des algorithmes dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques. Qu’il soit citoyen, expert, Ă©tudiant, homme politique ou scientifique, le livre offre au lecteur un ensemble de questions et de pistes d’analyse qui pourraient faciliter sa comprĂ©hension sur la question de l’indĂ©pendance de la justice qui se trouve Ă  l’agenda politique dans de nombreux pays europĂ©ens.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe