632 research outputs found

    Rectal resection for Schnitzler’s metastasis in a patient presenting with severe rectal stenosis: case report and review of the literature

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    Rectal metastasis resulting from the hematogenous spread of gastric cancer (Schnitzler’s disease) is rarely seen. We report a case of 53-year-old female with rectal metastasis from gastic cancer who presented with abdominal pain, tenesmus, and severe constipation. Digital rectal examination revealed a severe stenosis 5-6 cm from the dentate line. Sigmoidoscopy showed a narrowed lumen at 5 cm up from the dentate line. The evident radiologic finding was circumferential stenosis of the rectum located at the same level. Very low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision with coloanal anastomosis in addition to protective ileostomy were performed. Pathological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma (Schnitzler’s metastasis). The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day with no adverse events. It should be kept in mind that rectal stenosis could be metastasis from gastric carcinoma if consistent with the patient’s history

    The impact of stapling technique and surgeon specialism on anastomotic failure after right-sided colorectal resection. An international multi-centre, prospective audit

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    There is little evidence to support choice of technique and configuration for stapled anastomoses after right hemicolectomy and ileocaecal resection. This study aimed to determine the relationship between stapling technique and anastomotic failure

    Patients with Crohn's disease have longer post-operative in-hospital stay than patients with colon cancer but no difference in complications' rate

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    BACKGROUNDRight hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection are used to treat benign conditions like Crohn’s disease (CD) and malignant ones like colon cancer (CC).AIMTo investigate differences in pre- and peri-operative factors and their impact on post-operative outcome in patients with CC and CD.METHODSThis is a sub-group analysis of the European Society of Coloproctology’s prospective, multi-centre snapshot audit. Adult patients with CC and CD undergoing right hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection were included. Primary outcome measure was 30-d post-operative complications. Secondary outcome measures were post-operative length of stay (LOS) at and readmission.RESULTSThree hundred and seventy-five patients with CD and 2,515 patients with CC were included. Patients with CD were younger (median = 37 years for CD and 71 years for CC (P P P P P P P P = 0.25). Patients with CD had a significantly longer LOS (Geometric mean 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95; P CONCLUSIONPatients with CD were younger, with lower ASA grade, less comorbidity, operated on by experienced surgeons and underwent less radical resection but had a longer LOS than patients with CC although complications' rate was not different between the two groups.</p

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to childhood and maternal undernutrition in South Africa in 2000

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    Objectives. To estimate the disease burden attributable to being underweight as an indicator of undernutrition in children under 5 years of age and in pregnant women for the year 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. The 1999 National Food Consumption Survey prevalence of underweight classified in three low weight-for-age categories was compared with standard growth charts to estimate population-attributable fractions for mortality and morbidity outcomes, based on increased risk for each category and applied to revised burden of disease estimates for South Africa in 2000. Maternal underweight, leading to an increased risk of intra-uterine growth retardation and further risk of low birth weight (LBW), was also assessed using the approach adopted by the global assessment. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa. Subjects. Children under 5 years of age and pregnant women. Outcome measures. Mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from protein- energy malnutrition and a fraction of those from diarrhoeal disease, pneumonia, malaria, other non- HIV/AIDS infectious and parasitic conditions in children aged 0 - 4 years, and LBW. Results. Among children under 5 years, 11.8% were underweight. In the same age group, 11 808 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 11 100 - 12 642) or 12.3% (95% uncertainty interval 11.5 - 13.1%) were attributable to being underweight. Protein-energy malnutrition contributed 44.7% and diarrhoeal disease 29.6% of the total attributable burden. Childhood and maternal underweight accounted for 2.7% (95% uncertainty interval 2.6 - 2.9%) of all DALYs in South Africa in 2000 and 10.8% (95% uncertainty interval 10.2 - 11.5%) of DALYs in children under 5. Conclusions. The study shows that reduction of the occurrence of underweight would have a substantial impact on child mortality, and also highlights the need to monitor this important indicator of child health. South African Medical Journal Vol. 97 (8) Part 2 2007: pp. 733-73

    The Italian National Rare Diseases Registry.

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    INTRODUCTION:Rare disease registries are a priority at European level and specific actions are being implemented by the European Commission to support their development.In Italy, a National Registry of rare diseases has been established in 2001 as a network of regional registries. The latter have gradually been established and the full coverage of the Italian territory was attained during 2011. METHODS:Here we describe the basic features of the National Registry of rare diseases; the activities carried out to promote consistent operations in the regional registries; and the overall quality and composition of the records collected. RESULTS:After a validation process, including removal of duplicate records, 110,841 records of patients with rare diseases, single and with group denominations, are stored in the National Registry of rare diseases. They correspond to the overall diagnoses communicated to national registry by regional registries up to 30 June 2012.The quality of the data collected by the the National Registry of rare diseases has been assessed with respect to completeness and consistency of procedures. Variables characterising case and diagnosis showed a very limited number of missing values. Records reported at least one case of 485 rare conditions. DISCUSSION:To date, the National Registry of rare diseases is a surveillance system with the main objective of producing epidemiologic evidence on rare diseases in Italy, and of supporting policy making and health services planning.Data quality still represents a limitation for any sound epidemiological estimate of rare diseases in Italy. However, improvements of the quality of collected data and the completeness of case notifications should be strengthened.

    Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A four-year retrospective cohort study

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    The COVID-19 pandemic may have had an impact on healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of HAIs in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Umberto I teaching hospital in Rome before and during the pandemic. All infants admitted from 1 March 2018 to 28 February 2022 were included and were divided into four groups according to their admission date: two groups before the pandemic (periods I and II) and two during the pandemic (periods III and IV). The association between risk factors and time-to-first event was analyzed using a multivariable Cox regression model. Over the four-year period, a total of 503 infants were included, and 36 infections were recorded. After adjusting for mechanical ventilation, birth weight, sex, type of delivery, respiratory distress syndrome, and previous use of netilmicin and fluconazole, the multivariable analysis confirmed that being hospitalized during the pandemic periods (III and IV) was the main risk factor for HAI acquisition. Furthermore, a change in the etiology of these infections was observed across the study periods. Together, these findings suggest that patient management during the pandemic was suboptimal and that HAI surveillance protocols should be implemented in the NICU setting promptly

    Tobacco use among students aged 13–15 years in Greece: the GYTS project

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    BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). METHODS: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes), randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS: About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0) reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4) reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1) of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9) in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7) reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. CONCLUSION: The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age

    The burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections in South Africa in 2000

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    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in South Africa, to identify the factors contributing to this burden, and to review successes and failures in reducing this burden. Design. Years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated using different approaches for HIV/AIDS, other STIs and cervical cancer. Burden in respect of HIV/ AIDS was estimated using the ASSA2002 model, and for the other diseases the revised national burden of disease estimates for 2000 based on 1996 cause-of-death data were used. The ASSA2002 model was used to estimate numbers of AIDS deaths under different prevention and treatment scenarios. Setting. South Africa. Outcome measures. Deaths, YLL and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with HIV/AIDS, other STIs and cervical cancer. Results. STIs accounted for more than 26% of all deaths and over 5 million DALYs in 2000 and over 98% of this burden was due to HIV/AIDS. A combination of social, behavioural and biological conditions contribute to this burden. HIV/AIDS mortality and morbidity are estimated to have increased significantly since 2000, and the future change in this burden is largely dependent on the extent to which antiretroviral treatment and HIV prevention programmes are introduced. 2.5 million AIDS deaths could be prevented by 2015 if high levels of access to antiretroviral treatment are achieved. Conclusion. South Africa faces one of the largest STI epidemics in the world. A multifaceted strategy to prevent and treat STIs is needed, and burden of disease assessments should look beyond the role of ‘unsafe sex’ when attributing this disease burden to risk factors

    Estimating the burden of disease attributable to smoking in South Africa in 2000

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    Objectives. To quantify the burden of disease attributable to smoking in South Africa for 2000. Design. The absolute difference between observed lung cancer death rate and the level in non-smokers, adjusted for occupational and indoor exposure to lung carcinogens, was used to estimate the proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to smoking and the smoking impact ratio (SIR). The SIR was substituted for smoking prevalence in the attributable fraction formula for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancers to allow for the long lag between exposure and outcome. Assuming a shorter lag between exposure and disease, the current prevalence of smoking was used to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAF) for the other outcomes. Relative risks (RR) from the American Cancer Society cancer prevention study (CPS-II) were used to calculate PAF. Setting. South Africa. Outcome measures. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to lung and other cancers, COPD, cardiovascular conditions, respiratory tuberculosis, and other respiratory and medical conditions. Results. Smoking caused between 41 632 and 46 656 deaths in South Africa, accounting for 8.0 - 9.0% of deaths and 3.7 - 4.3% of DALYs in 2000. Smoking ranked third (after unsafe sex/sexually transmitted disease and high blood pressure) in terms of mortality among 17 risk factors evaluated. Three times as many males as females died from smoking. Lung cancer had the largest attributable fraction due to smoking. However, cardiovascular diseases accounted for the largest proportion of deaths attributed to smoking. Conclusion. Cigarette smoking accounts for a large burden of preventable disease in South Africa. While the government has taken bold legislative action to discourage tobacco use since 1994, it still remains a major public health priority
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