5,741 research outputs found

    On Soliton Automorphisms in Massive and Conformal Theories

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    For massive and conformal quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions with a global gauge group we consider soliton automorphisms, viz. automorphisms of the quasilocal algebra which act like two different global symmetry transformations on the left and right spacelike complements of a bounded region. We give a unified treatment by providing a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence and Poincare' covariance of soliton automorphisms which is applicable to a large class of theories. In particular, our construction applies to the QFT models with the local Fock property -- in which case the latter property is the only input from constructive QFT we need -- and to holomorphic conformal field theories. In conformal QFT soliton representations appear as twisted sectors, and in a subsequent paper our results will be used to give a rigorous analysis of the superselection structure of orbifolds of holomorphic theories.Comment: latex2e, 20 pages. Proof of Thm. 3.14 corrected, 2 references added. Final version as to appear in Rev. Math. Phy

    The Effect of Cigarette Excise Taxes on Smoking Before, During and After Pregnancy

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    Recent analyses suggest that cigarette excise taxes lower prenatal smoking. It is unclear, however, whether the association between taxes and prenatal smoking represents a decline among women of reproductive age or a particular response by pregnant women. We address this question directly with an analysis of quit and relapse behavior during and after pregnancy. We find that the price elasticity of prenatal quitting and postpartum relapse is close to one in absolute value. We conclude that direct financial incentives to stop smoking during and after pregnancy should be considered.

    Ohio State University Commencement

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    Commencement address given by Michael Coleman, Mayor, City of Columbus, Ohio, to the Summer 2010 graduating class of The Ohio State University, Jerome Schottenstein Center, Columbus, Ohio, August 29, 2010

    A socio-technical investigation into the electrical end use patterns of information, communication and entertainment technologies in UK homes.

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    Information, communication and entertainment (ICE) appliances are consumer electronics and information and communication technologies (ICT). Forecasts suggest that ICE appliance use will soon become the most significant domestic electricity end-use in the UK. Knowledge concerning “real world” ICE electricity consumption is currently limited and it has been suggested that this deficiency could lead to ineffective policy programmes. This socio-technical study measured ICE appliance electricity consumption in fourteen UK households’ and undertook household interviews to explore the behavioural factors that influenced the measurements recorded. The interviews were informed by two social psychology theories: (i) Triandis’ (1977) Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB); (ii) Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT). The study supports the position that ICE appliance use and standby power consumption are significant electricity end-uses in UK homes. Key appliances that contributed to the sample’s average electricity consumption are identified. Inconspicuous electricity consumption from network appliances is an issue of particular concern due to policy gaps. The interviews found that a range of internal and external factors influenced ICE appliance use. Behavioural intentions and habits were found to be facilitated or impeded by personal ability, knowledge and physical constraints. Social structures and expectations also supported the more expansive ownership and use of ICE appliances and energy consumption was an issue largely excluded from adoption decisions. The findings imply that a multifaceted approach is required to reduce household ICE appliance electricity consumption. This study supports the recent implementation of minimum energy performance standards and provides further recommendations that include: (i) improved product design; (ii) the expansion of mandatory energy labelling; (iii) improved electricity consumption feedback in UK homes; (iv) the use of behaviour change campaigns; (v) the integration of ICE appliance energy saving objectives into UK policies

    Primary and secondary processes in normal and dyslexic word identification

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    Skilled visual word identification is an effortless component of fluent reading, subserved by a relatively fast, automatic, primary lexical access process. Experimental tasks and neuropsychological conditions that restrict information flow to primary process invoke task specific or secondary process mediated identification. These secondary processes may be alternative routes to identification, used infrequently by skilled readers, but more frequently while acquiring literacy, or when primary process fails. They are sometimes referred to as guessing and meta-linguistic functions. The focus of mainstream research on primary lexical access has meant that they remain relatively unexplored components of normal word recognition. The thesis proposes a limited set of secondary 'completion' processes, to avoid using the term 'guess'. Completion processes 'complete' degraded input to deliver candidate identifications. Lexical completions are mediated by the orthographic input lexicon, and involve the amplification of sub-threshold representations, either by serial deployment of attention to enhance letter level representations, or by parallel attentional modulation of word level activation. Sublexical completion processes explicitly identify letters, and 'retrieve' or 'assemble' words from letter identities or names. These completions are under constant 'revision' in the normal, motivated, system. In conjunction with primary process, these secondary processes form a broader view of normal word recognition formalised in a flow model call the primary secondary process model Experimental results indicate that lexical completion is associated with inhibitory effects of neighbourhood size, and that sublexical completion may result in inhibitory or facilitatory effects of neighbourhood size depending on the nature of fragments and procedures used. Neuropsychological results indicate that secondary process deficits may restrict the compensatory strategies open to peripheral dyslexics, and hence, that their performance is best described in terms of both residual primary and residual secondary processes. The explanatory role of secondary processing may extend beyond peripheral dyslexia and fragment completion, to encompass strategic and individual differences in adult performance, and developmental differences in the acquisition of literacy

    Understanding How Transformational Leaders Inspire Employee Engagement in Rapidly Changing Environments

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    Over the past five years, North Carolina community colleges have experienced a plethora of rapid changes, which can have a negative impact on employee engagement. Individuals who possess a transformational style of leadership typically inspire employees to engage in their work despite a rapidly changing environment. The specific business problem in this research study was a lack of understanding of how transformational leaders in North Carolina community colleges were inspiring employees to engage in their jobs during a rapidly changing environment. To address this significant issue, the researcher interviewed a group of senior transformational leaders from various community colleges within the system, to learn specific narrative accounts of how inspiration was occurring. The findings of this study contained six themes, which provided a selection of best practices that future leaders could follow. The best practices included activities, processes, ideas, and events that the transformational leaders were using to address employee engagement issues. The overarching theme discovered in this study was that there are no perfect examples of how inspiration should take place. The best way a leader could attempt to inspire employee engagement was to embody the character traits associated with the transformational leadership style by building relationships, providing them with resources, or investing in their future. From a biblical application standpoint, the findings of this study should challenge Christian business leaders to utilize a transformational leadership style to develop employees to use their God-given talents and abilities for his glory