2,111 research outputs found

    Summary of the Structure Functions and Low-x working group

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    We report a summary of the structure function working group which covers a wide range of the recent results from HERA, Tevatron, RHIC, and JLab experiments, and many theoretical issues from low x to high x.Comment: 20 pages, presented at 13th International Workshop on Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS 05), Madison, Wisconsin, 27 Apr - 1 May 200

    Genetic analysis of cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy of water diffusion in the brain

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    Objectives: The thickness of the brain’s cortical gray matter (GM) and the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cerebral white matter (WM) each follow an inverted U-shape trajectory with age. The two measures are positively correlated and may be modulated by common biological mechanisms. We employed four types of genetic analyses to localize individual genes acting pleiotropically upon these phenotypes. Methods: Whole-brain and regional GM thickness and FA values were measured from high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images collected from 712, Mexican American participants (438 females, age = 47.9 ± 13.2 years) recruited from 73 (9.7 ± 9.3 individuals/family) large families. The significance of the correlation between two traits was estimated using a bivariate genetic correlation analysis. Localization of chromosomal regions that jointly influenced both traits was performed using whole-genome quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Gene localization was performed using SNP genotyping on Illumina 1M chip and correlation with leukocyte-based gene-expression analyses. The gene-expressions were measured using the Illumina BeadChip. These data were available for 371 subjects. Results: Significant genetic correlation was observed among GM thickness and FA values. Significant logarithm of odds (LOD ≥ 3.0) QTLs were localized within chromosome 15q22–23. More detailed localization reported no significant association (p \u3c 5·10−5) for 1565 SNPs located within the QTLs. Post hoc analysis indicated that 40% of the potentially significant (p ≤ 10−3) SNPs were localized to the related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) and NARG2 genes. A potentially significant association was observed for the rs2456930 polymorphism reported as a significant GWAS finding in Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative subjects. The expression levels for RORA and ADAM10 genes were significantly (p \u3c 0.05) correlated with both FA and GM thickness. NARG2 expressions were significantly correlated with GM thickness (p \u3c 0.05) but failed to show a significant correlation (p = 0.09) with FA. Discussion: This study identified a novel, significant QTL at 15q22–23. SNP correlation with gene-expression analyses indicated that RORA, NARG2, and ADAM10 jointly influence GM thickness and WM–FA values

    Analysis of SLC16A11 Variants in 12,811 American Indians: Genotype-Obesity Interaction for Type 2 Diabetes and an Association With RNASEK Expression

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    Genetic variants in SLC16A11 were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Mexican and other Latin American populations. The diabetes risk haplotype had a frequency of 50% in Native Americans from Mexico but was rare in Europeans and Africans. In the current study, we analyzed SLC16A11 in 12,811 North American Indians and found that the diabetes risk haplotype, tagged by the rs75493593 A allele, was nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, odds ratio 1.11). However, there was a strong interaction with BMI (P = 5.1 × 10(-7)) such that the diabetes association was stronger in leaner individuals. rs75493593 was also strongly associated with BMI in individuals with type 2 diabetes (P = 3.4 × 10(-15)) but not in individuals without diabetes (P = 0.77). Longitudinal analyses suggest that this is due, in part, to an association of the A allele with greater weight loss following diabetes onset (P = 0.02). Analyses of global gene expression data from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and whole blood provide evidence that rs75493593 is associated with expression of the nearby RNASEK gene, suggesting that RNASEK expression may mediate the effect of genotype on diabetes

    Novel Associations of Nonstructural Loci with Paraoxonase Activity

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    The high-density-lipoprotein-(HDL-) associated esterase paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a likely contributor to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL. Two nonsynonymous mutations in the structural gene, PON1, have been associated with variation in activity levels, but substantial interindividual differences remain unexplained and are greatest for substrates other than the eponymous paraoxon. PON1 activity levels were measured for three substrates—organophosphate paraoxon, arylester phenyl acetate, and lactone dihydrocoumarin—in 767 Mexican American individuals from San Antonio, Texas. Genetic influences on activity levels for each substrate were evaluated by association with approximately one million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) while conditioning on PON1 genotypes. Significant associations were detected at five loci including regions on chromosomes 4 and 17 known to be associated with atherosclerosis and lipoprotein regulation and loci on chromosome 3 that regulate ubiquitous transcription factors. These loci explain 7.8% of variation in PON1 activity with lactone as a substrate, 5.6% with the arylester, and 3.0% with paraoxon. In light of the potential importance of PON1 in preventing cardiovascular disease/events, these novel loci merit further investigation

    Experimental determination of translational start sites resolves uncertainties in genomic open reading frame predictions – application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Correct identification of translational start sites is important for understanding protein function and transcriptional regulation. The annotated translational start sites contained in genome databases are often predicted using bioinformatics and are rarely verified experimentally, and so are not all accurate. Therefore, we devised a simple approach for determining translational start sites using a combination of epitope tagging and frameshift mutagenesis. This assay was used to determine the start sites of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins: LexA, SigC and Rv1955. We were able to show that proteins may begin before or after the predicted site. We also found that a small, non-annotated open reading frame upstream of Rv1955 was expressed as a protein, which we have designated Rv1954A. This approach is readily applicable to any bacterial species for which plasmid transformation can be achieved

    High dimensional endophenotype ranking in the search for major depression risk genes.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite overwhelming evidence that major depression is highly heritable, recent studies have localized only a single depression-related locus reaching genome-wide significance and have yet to identify a causal gene. Focusing on family-based studies of quantitative intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes, in tandem with studies of unrelated individuals using categorical diagnoses, should improve the likelihood of identifying major depression genes. However, there is currently no empirically derived statistically rigorous method for selecting optimal endophentypes for mental illnesses. Here, we describe the endophenotype ranking value, a new objective index of the genetic utility of endophenotypes for any heritable illness. METHODS: Applying endophenotype ranking value analysis to a high-dimensional set of over 11,000 traits drawn from behavioral/neurocognitive, neuroanatomic, and transcriptomic phenotypic domains, we identified a set of objective endophenotypes for recurrent major depression in a sample of Mexican American individuals (n = 1122) from large randomly selected extended pedigrees. RESULTS: Top-ranked endophenotypes included the Beck Depression Inventory, bilateral ventral diencephalon volume, and expression levels of the RNF123 transcript. To illustrate the utility of endophentypes in this context, each of these traits were utlized along with disease status in bivariate linkage analysis. A genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus was localized on chromsome 4p15 (logarithm of odds = 3.5) exhibiting pleiotropic effects on both the endophenotype (lymphocyte-derived expression levels of the RNF123 gene) and disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: The wider use of quantitative endophenotypes, combined with unbiased methods for selecting among these measures, should spur new insights into the biological mechanisms that influence mental illnesses like major depression

    Online and social networking interventions for the treatment of depression in young people: a systematic review

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    BACKGROUND: Major depression accounts for the greatest burden of all diseases globally. The peak onset of depression occurs between adolescence and young adulthood, and for many individuals, depression displays a relapse-remitting and increasingly severe course. Given this, the development of cost-effective, acceptable, and population-focused interventions for depression is critical. A number of online interventions (both prevention and acute phase) have been tested in young people with promising results. As these interventions differ in content, clinician input, and modality, it is important to identify key features (or unhelpful functions) associated with treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the research literature was undertaken. The review was designed to focus on two aspects of online intervention: (1) standard approaches evaluating online intervention content in randomized controlled designs (Section 1), and (2) second-generation online interventions and services using social networking (eg, social networking sites and online support groups) in any type of research design (Section 2). METHODS: Two specific literature searches were undertaken. There was no date range specified. The Section 1 search, which focused on randomized controlled trials, included only young people (12-25 years) and yielded 101 study abstracts, of which 15 met the review inclusion criteria. The Section 2 search, which included all study design types and was not restricted in terms of age, yielded 358 abstracts, of which 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Information about the studies and their findings were extracted and tabulated for review. RESULTS: The 15 studies identified in Section 1 described 10 trials testing eight different online interventions, all of which were based on a cognitive behavioral framework. All but one of the eight identified studies reported positive results; however, only five of the 15 studies used blinded interviewer administered outcomes with most trials using self-report data. Studies varied significantly in presentation of intervention content, treatment dose, and dropout. Only two studies included moderator or clinician input. Results for Section 2 were less consistent. None of the Section 2 studies reported controlled or randomized designs. With the exception of four studies, all included participants were younger than 25 years of age. Eight of the 16 social networking studies reported positive results for depression-related outcomes. The remaining studies were either mixed or negative. Findings for online support groups tended to be more positive; however, noteworthy risks were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Online interventions with a broad cognitive behavioral focus appear to be promising in reducing depression symptomology in young people. Further research is required into the effectiveness of online interventions delivering cognitive behavioral subcomponents, such as problem-solving therapy. Evidence for the use of social networking is less compelling, although limited by a lack of well-designed studies and social networking interventions. A range of future social networking therapeutic opportunities are highlighted

    GWAS and transcriptional analysis prioritize ITPR1 and CNTN4 for a serum uric acid 3p26 QTL in Mexican Americans

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    Background: The variation in serum uric acid concentrations is under significant genetic influence. Elevated SUA concentrations have been linked to increased risk for gout, kidney stones, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease whereas reduced serum uric acid concentrations have been linked to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we identified a novel locus on chromosome 3p26 affecting serum uric acid concentrations in Mexican Americans from San Antonio Family Heart Study. As a follow up, we examined genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in an extended cohort of 1281 Mexican Americans from multigenerational families of the San Antonio Family Heart Study and the San Antonio Family Diabetes/ Gallbladder Study. We used a linear regression-based joint linkage/association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. Results:Univariate genetic analysis indicated serum uric acid concentrations to be significant heritable (h2 = 0.50 ± 0.05, p Conclusion: Our results confirm the importance of the chromosome 3p26 locus and genetic variants in this region in the regulation of serum uric acid concentrations