4,294 research outputs found

    An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters.

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    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods

    The Effects of Perceived Stress and Attitudes toward Menopause and Aging on Symptoms of Menopause

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    As part of a longitudinal study of midlife women, the aim of this investigation was to describe the intensity of menopausal symptoms in relation to level of perceived stress in a woman’s life and her attitudes toward menopause and aging. Data were collected on 347 women between the ages of 40–50 in Northern California who began the study while pre-menopausal. Women self identified as African American, European American, or Mexican/Central American. Data collected over 3 time points in the first 12 months were used for this analysis. An investigatordeveloped tool for perception of specific types of stress was used. Attitudes toward menopause and aging were measured using the Attitudes Toward Menopause and Attitude Toward Aging Checklists. Attitudes toward aging and menopause, perceived stress, and income were related to intensity of symptoms. There was no ethnic group difference in perceived stress or attitude toward menopause. However, European and African Americans had a more positive attitude toward aging than Mexican/Central Americans. A lower income, higher perceived stress, a more negative attitude toward aging, and a more positive attitude toward menopause influenced menopausal symptom experience

    Patient-Reported Side Effects of Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin Type A for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder Syndrome

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    Objective: The aim of the study was a prospective assessment of patient-reported side effects in an open-label study after intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections for idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods: Botulinum toxin A injection was performed in 56 patients with idiopathic OAB. Patients were followed up for 6 months concerning side effects and patients' satisfaction. Results: Different types of side effects were assessed such as dry mouth (19.6%), arm weakness (8.9%), eyelid weakness (8.9%), leg weakness (7.1%), torso weakness (5.4%), impaired vision (5.4%) and dysphagia (5.4%). In all cases, symptoms were mild and transient. Urological complications such as gross hematuria (17.9%), acute urinary retention (8.9%) and acute urinary tract infection (7.1%) were noticed. In all cases, acute urinary retention was transient and treated with temporary intermittent self-catheterization. There was no statistically significant correlation between dosage and observed side effects. Patients' satisfaction rate was high (71.4%). Conclusion: Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin was associated with a high rate of neurourological side effects. In general, side effects were transient, mild and did not require special treatment. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Base

    Identifying rare variants using a Bayesian regression approach

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    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate large amounts of sequence data with rare variants in a cost-effective way. Statistical methods that test variants individually are underpowered to detect rare variants, so it is desirable to perform association analysis of rare variants by combining the information from all variants. In this study, we use a Bayesian regression method to model all variants simultaneously to identify rare variants in a data set from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17. We studied the association between the quantitative risk traits Q1, Q2, and Q4 and the single-nucleotide polymorphisms and identified several positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms for traits Q1 and Q2. However, the model also generated several apparent false positives and missed many true positives, suggesting that there is room for improvement in this model

    Neuromodulation and the role of electrodiagnostic techniques

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    Electrodiagnostic techniques have been utilized in surgery since the early 1960s. These techniques have been primarily used in neurosurgery; however, with the introduction of neuromodulation for voiding dysfunction, these techniques have now found their way into the field of female pelvic medicine. This article will review techniques applicable to evaluate pelvic floor function as it relates to neuromodulation. It will also review the literature describing how these techniques are used to help determine appropriate candidates as well as improve surgical outcomes. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms neuromodulation, Interstim, electrodiagnosis, electrodiagnostic techniques, electromyography with limits to the pelvic floor, and voiding dysfunction. Eight articles and three abstracts were found that directly related to the use of electrodiagnostic techniques as they apply to neuromodulation. Electrodiagnostic techniques may play a role in helping predict appropriate candidates for neuromodulation as well as improve surgical outcomes

    Positive affect and its association with viral control among women with HIV infection

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    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between positive affect and viral suppression among women with HIV infection. METHOD: Three waves of 6-month data were analyzed from 995 women on HIV antiretroviral therapy participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (10/11-3/13). The predictor variable was self-reported positive affect over 2 waves of data collection, and the outcome was suppressed viral load, defined as plasma HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL, measured at a third wave. RESULTS: Women with higher positive affect (36%) were more likely to have viral suppression at a subsequent wave (OR 1.92, 95% CI [1.34, 2.74]). Adjusting for covariates and their interactions, including negative affect, Wave 1 viral suppression, adherence, study site, recruitment cohort, substance use, heavy drinking, relationship status, interpersonal difficulties, and demographics, a statistically significant interaction was detected between negative affect, positive affect and viral suppression, t(965) = -2.7, p = .008. The association of positive affect and viral suppression differed at negative affect quartile values. For those reporting no negative affect, the AOR for positive affect and viral suppression was 2.41 (95% CI [1.35, 4.31]); at a negative affect score of 2, the AOR was 1.44 (95% CI [0.87, 2.36]); and at a score of 5.5, the AOR was 0.58 (95% CI [0.24, 1.42]). CONCLUSION: Our central finding related to the interaction effect, that positive affect is associated with viral control under conditions of lower negative affect, is consistent with previous theory and research with other health outcomes, and can help guide efforts to further delineate mechanisms linking affect and health. (PsycINFO Database Recor

    First-in-human immunoPET imaging of COVID-19 convalescent patients using dynamic total-body PET and a CD8-targeted minibody

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    With most of the T cells residing in the tissue, not the blood, developing noninvasive methods for in vivo quantification of their biodistribution and kinetics is important for studying their role in immune response and memory. This study presents the first use of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic modeling for in vivo measurement of CD8+ T cell biodistribution in humans. A 89Zr-labeled CD8-targeted minibody (89Zr-Df-Crefmirlimab) was used with total-body PET in healthy individuals (N = 3) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent patients (N = 5). Kinetic modeling results aligned with T cell-trafficking effects expected in lymphoid organs. Tissue-to-blood ratios from the first 7 hours of imaging were higher in bone marrow of COVID-19 convalescent patients compared to controls, with an increasing trend between 2 and 6 months after infection, consistent with modeled net influx rates and peripheral blood flow cytometry analysis. These results provide a promising platform for using dynamic PET to study the total-body immune response and memory

    Sun exposure to the eyes: predicted UV protection effectiveness of various sunglasses.

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    The aim of this study was to assess solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses received by the eyes in different exposure situations, and to predict the sun protection effectiveness provided by various styles of sunglasses at facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones including the cornea and accounting for different head positions. A 3D numeric model was optimized to predict direct, diffuse and reflected erythemally weighted UVR doses received at various skin zones. Precisely defined facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones, sunglasses (goggles, medium-, and large-sized sunglasses) and three head positions were modeled to simulate daily (08:00-17:00) and midday (12:00-14:00) UVR doses. The shading from sunglasses' frame and lenses' UVR transmission were used to calculate a predictive protection factor (PPF [%]). Highest ocular daily UVR doses were estimated at the uncovered cornea (1718.4 J/m &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; ). Least sun protection was provided by middle-sized sunglasses with highest midday dose at the white lateral (290.8 J/m &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; ) and lateral periorbital zones (390.9 J/m &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; ). Goggles reached almost 100% protection at all skin zones. Large-sized sunglasses were highly effective in winter; however, their effectiveness depended on diffuse UVR doses received. In "looking-up" head positions highest midday UVR doses were received at the unprotected cornea (908.1 J/m &lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; ), totally protected when large-sized sunglasses are used. All tested sunglass lenses fully blocked UVR. Sunglasses' protection effectiveness is strongly influenced by geometry, wearing position, head positions, and exposure conditions. Sunglasses do not totally block UVR and should be combined with additional protection means. 3D modeling allows estimating UVR exposure of highly sensitive small skin zones, chronically exposed and rarely assessed
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