14 research outputs found

    Lack of Sik1 in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Impairs Cardiomyogenesis by Down-Regulating the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57kip2

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    Sik1 (salt inducible kinase 1) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the stress- and energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase family. During murine embryogenesis, sik1 marks the monolayer of future myocardial cells that will populate first the primitive ventricle, and later the primitive atrium suggesting its involvement in cardiac cell differentiation and/or heart development. Despite that observation, the involvement of sik1 in cardiac differentiation is still unknown. We examined the sik1 function during cardiomyocyte differentiation using the ES-derived embryoid bodies. We produced a null embryonic stem cell using a gene-trap cell line carrying an insertion in the sik1 locus. In absence of the sik1 protein, the temporal appearance of cardiomyocytes is delayed. Expression profile analysis revealed sik1 as part of a genetic network that controls the cell cycle, where the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 is directly involved. Collectively, we provided evidence that sik1-mediated effects are specific for cardiomyogenesis regulating cardiomyoblast cell cycle exit toward terminal differentiation

    The G-protein-coupled receptor APJ is expressed in the second heart field and regulates Cerberus-Baf60c axis in embryonic stem cell cardiomyogenesis

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    Mammalian cardiomyogenesis occurs through a multistep process that requires a complex network of tightly regulated extracellular signals, which integrate with the genetic and epigenetic machinery to maintain, expand, and regulate the differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) recapitulate many aspects of development, and have provided an excellent opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiomyogenesis, which is still incompletely defined

    Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems

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    The effects of increasing concentrations of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essentials oil (EO) on ruminal gas emissions were tested in vitro using 50 mL serum bottles. Each bottle contained a 200 mg substrate (alfalfa hay and corn meal 1:1) and a 20 mL solution composed of a buffered medium and rumen fluid (1:2). The percentage of ruminal fermentation products was quantified by an infrared analyzer. The reduction of total gas production was 6% and 9% respectively when using the 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO measurements. The reduction of methane production was 55%, 72% and 71% respectively with regard to the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO doses, while rosemary EO (2.0 g/L) reduced the methane production by 9%. The production of ammonia was significantly reduced (59%–78%) by all treatments with the exception of rosemary EO at the lowest dose. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability was reduced by most of the treatments (respectively 4%–9% and 8%–24%). The total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was markedly decreased by oregano EO and was not affected by rosemary EO. Both EOs mitigated rumen fermentations, but oregano EO gave rise to the highest reduction in methane and ammonia production. However, further research is needed to evaluate the use of these essential oils as dietary supplements by taking into account the negative effects on feed degradability

    Cardiomyogenesis is controlled by the miR-99a/let-7c cluster and epigenetic modifications

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    Understanding the molecular basis of cardiomyocyte development is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of pre- and post-natal cardiac disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression that play an important role in many developmental processes. Here, we show that the miR-99a/let-7c cluster, mapping on human chromosome 21, is involved in the control of cardiomyogenesis by altering epigenetic factors. By perturbing miRNA expression in mouse embryonic stem cells, we find that let-7c promotes cardiomyogenesis by upregulating genes involved in mesoderm specification (T/Bra and Nodal) and cardiac differentiation (Mesp1, Nkx2.5 and Tbx5). The action of let-7c is restricted to the early phase of mesoderm formation at the expense of endoderm and its late activation redirects cells toward other mesodermal derivatives. The Polycomb complex group protein Ezh2 is a direct target of let-7c, which promotes cardiac differentiation by modifying the H3K27me3 marks from the promoters of crucial cardiac transcription factors (Nkx2.5, Mef2c, Tbx5). In contrast, miR-99a represses cardiac differentiation via the nucleosome-remodeling factor Smarca5, attenuating the Nodal/Smad2 signaling. We demonstrated that the identified targets are underexpressed in human Down syndrome fetal heart specimens. By perturbing the expression levels of these miRNAs in embryonic stem cells, we were able to demonstrate that these miRNAs control lineage- and stage-specific transcription factors, working in concert with chromatin modifiers to direct cardiomyogenesis

    Stabilization of cell-cell adhesions prevents symmetry breaking and locks in pluripotency in 3D gastruloids

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    3D embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates self-organize into embryo-like structures named gastruloids that recapitulate the axial organization of post-implantation embryos. Crucial in this process is the symmetry-breaking event that leads to the emergence of asymmetry and spatially ordered structures from homogeneous cell aggregates. Here, we show that budesonide, a glucocorticoid drug widely used to treat asthma, prevents ESC aggregates to break symmetry. Mechanistically, the effect of budesonide is glucocorticoid receptor independent. RNA sequencing and lineage fate analysis reveal that budesonide counteracts exit from pluripotency and modifies the expression of a large set of genes associated with cell migration, A-P axis formation, and WNT signaling. This correlates with reduced phenotypic and molecular cell heterogeneity, persistence of E-CADHERIN at the cell-cell interface, and cell aggregate compaction. Our findings reveal that cell-cell adhesion properties control symmetry breaking and cell fate transition in 3D gastruloids and suggest a potential adverse effect of budesonide on embryo development

    Oregano dietary supplementation modifies the liver transcriptome profile in broilers: RNASeq analysis

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    Intensive farming of broilers involves stressful conditions that reduce animal welfare and performance. New dietary strategies to improve performance and meat quality include the administration of plant extracts. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is known for its antimicrobial, anti-fungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. However, studies on diet supplementation with oregano are mainly focused on the evaluation of animal performance, while partial information is available on transcriptomics and nutrigenomics and, in particular, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is not widely applied. In this study we tested the effect of an oregano aqueous extract supplemented diet on gene expression in broiler chickens. Whole liver transcriptome of 10 birds fed with a supplemented diet versus 10 controls was analyzed using the RNA-Seq technique. One hundred and twenty-nine genes were differentially expressed with an absolute log fold change > 1. The analysis reveals a massive down-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and insulin signaling pathways in broilers fed with the oregano aqueous extract supplementation. Down-regulated genes could be associated to chicken lean line, suggesting the potential beneficial effect of oregano supplementation in reducing both abdominal and visceral fat deposition. Down-regulation of insulin signaling pathway related genes suggest that dietary oregano supplementation might be an option in obesity and diabetes conditions

    Budesonide Analogues Preserve Stem Cell Pluripotency and Delay 3D Gastruloid Development

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    Small molecules that can modulate or stabilize cell-cell interactions are valuable tools for investigating the impact of collective cell behavior on various biological processes such as development/morphogenesis, tissue regeneration and cancer progression. Recently, we showed that budesonide, a glucocorticoid widely used as an anti-asthmatic drug, is a potent regulator of stem cell pluripotency. Here we tested the effect of different budesonide derivatives and identified CHD-030498 as a more effective analogue of budesonide. CHD-030498 was able to prevent stem cell pluripotency exit in different cell-based models, including embryonic stem-to-mesenchymal transition, spontaneous differentiation and 3D gastruloid development, and at lower doses compared to budesonide