14,669 research outputs found

    A Low Cost and Labor Efficient Method for Rearing Black Cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), has been and continues to be the subject of many biological and control studies in the north-central states. Interest in this insect can often be traced to its status as a major, but sporadic pest of field com in the region

    Modulation of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection: The Role of Endogenous Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex and a Viral Class I Homolog

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    Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in early immune responses against certain viruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV causes downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in infected cells; however, it has been proposed that a class I MHC homolog encoded by CMV, UL18, may act as a surrogate ligand to prevent NK cell lysis of CMV-infected cells. In this study, we examined the role of UL18 in NK cell recognition and lysis using fibroblasts infected with either wild-type or UL18 knockout CMV virus, and by using cell lines transfected with the UL18 gene. In both systems, the expression of UL18 resulted in the enhanced killing of target cells. We also show that the enhanced killing is due to both UL18-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that the killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) and CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors for MHC class I do not play a role in affecting susceptibility of CMV-infected fibroblasts to NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity

    Bose-Einstein Condensate in Weak 3d Isotropic Speckle Disorder

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    The effect of a weak three-dimensional (3d) isotropic laser speckle disorder on various thermodynamic properties of a dilute Bose gas is considered at zero temperature. First, we summarize the derivation of the autocorrelation function of laser speckles in 1d and 2d following the seminal work of Goodman. The goal of this discussion is to show that a Gaussian approximation of this function, proposed in some recent papers, is inconsistent with the general background of laser speckle theory. Then we propose a possible experimental realization for an isotropic 3d laser speckle potential and derive its corresponding autocorrelation function. Using a Fourier transform of that function, we calculate both condensate depletion and sound velocity of a Bose-Einstein condensate as disorder ensemble averages of such a weak laser speckle potential within a perturbative solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. By doing so, we reproduce the expression of the normalfluid density obtained earlier within the treatment of Landau. This physically transparent derivation shows that condensate particles, which are scattered by disorder, form a gas of quasiparticles which is responsible for the normalfluid component

    Antibacterial Silver

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    The antibacterial activity of silver has long been known and has found a variety of applications because its toxicity to human cells is considerably lower than to bacteria. The most widely documented uses are prophylactic treatment of burns and water disinfection. However, the mechanisms by which silver kills cells are not known. Information on resistance mechanisms is apparently contradictory and even the chemistry of Ag+ in such systems is poorly understood

    KEY FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO COW/CALF COSTS, PROFITS AND PRODUCTION

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    In this study, cow/calf Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) data for Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico are used to analyze how total cost, production, and profitability are affected by management choices. Total cost is the financial cost associated with raising a calf through the weaning stage; profits are measured using the rate of return on assets; production is determined by pounds weaned per exposed female. Variables such as herd size, pounds of feed fed, calving percentage, death loss, length of breeding season and investment in asset groups are used in regressions. Key factors contributing to a cow/calf operation's costs, production, and profitability are identified.Livestock Production/Industries,

    Effect of optical disorder and single defects on the expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional waveguide

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    We investigate the one-dimensional expansion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical guide in the presence of a random potential created with optical speckles. With the speckle the expansion of the condensate is strongly inhibited. A detailed investigation has been carried out varying the experimental conditions and checking the expansion when a single optical defect is present. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Killing Vector Fields in Three Dimensions: A Method to Solve Massive Gravity Field Equations

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    Killing vector fields in three dimensions play important role in the construction of the related spacetime geometry. In this work we show that when a three dimensional geometry admits a Killing vector field then the Ricci tensor of the geometry is determined in terms of the Killing vector field and its scalars. In this way we can generate all products and covariant derivatives at any order of the ricci tensor. Using this property we give ways of solving the field equations of Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) and New Massive Gravity (NMG) introduced recently. In particular when the scalars of the Killing vector field (timelike, spacelike and null cases) are constants then all three dimensional symmetric tensors of the geometry, the ricci and einstein tensors, their covariant derivatives at all orders, their products of all orders are completely determined by the Killing vector field and the metric. Hence the corresponding three dimensional metrics are strong candidates of solving all higher derivative gravitational field equations in three dimensions.Comment: 25 pages, some changes made and some references added, to be published in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Mission-oriented requirements for updating MIL-H-8501. Volume 1: STI proposed structure

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    The structure of a new flying and ground handling qualities specification for military rotorcraft is presented. This preliminary specification structure is intended to evolve into a replacement for specification MIL-H-8501A. The new structure is designed to accommodate a variety of rotorcraft types, mission flight phases, flight envelopes, and flight environmental characteristics and to provide criteria for three levels of flying qualities, a systematic treatment of failures and reliability, both conventional and multiaxis controllers, and external vision aids which may also incorporate synthetic display content. Existing and new criteria were incorporated into the new structure wherever they could be substantiated

    Semiclassical and Quantum Field Theoretic Bounds for Traversable Lorentzian Stringy Wormholes

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    A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cut-off on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we examine the wormhole features of two examples from the Einstein frame description of the vacuum low energy string theory in four dimensions which is the same as the minimally coupled scalar field theory. Analyses in this paper support the conclusion of Ford and Roman that wormholes in this theory can have sizes that are indeed only a few order of magnitudes larger than the Planck scale. It is shown that the two types of bounds are also compatible. In the process, we point out a "wormhole" analog of naked black holes.Comment: 15 page
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