57 research outputs found

    Means (Β±SD) of self-reported responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in patients with social phobia (SP) and healthy controls (HC).

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    <p><i>Notes</i>: <i>T</i>β€Š=β€Š T-Test, <i>p</i>β€Š=β€Šp-value; df β€Š=β€Š degrees of freedom, <i>M</i>β€Š=β€Š mean, <i>S D</i>β€Š=β€Š standard deviation; Ti β€Š=β€Š main effect of time; SP β€Š=β€Š main effect of diagnosis of social phobia; TixSP β€Š=β€Š interaction of time and diagnosis; MDBF β€Š=β€Š multidimensional mental-state questionnaire; Stai-S β€Š=β€Š state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; PASA β€Š=β€Š Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal questionnaire; VAS β€Š=β€Š visual analogue scales; PEPQ β€Š=β€Š Post Event Processing Questionnaire.</p><p>*β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><.05,</p><p>**β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><0.01,</p><p>***β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><.001.</p

    The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

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    <div><p>Objectives</p><p>Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (<i>N</i> = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.</p><p>Results</p><p>Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.</p></div

    Group characteristics of patients with social phobia (SP) and healthy controls (HC).

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    <p><i>Notes</i>: <i>T</i>β€Š=β€ŠT-Test, <i>p</i>β€Š=β€Šp-value; dfβ€Š=β€Šdegrees of freedom, <i>M</i>β€Š=β€Šmean, <i>SD</i>β€Š=β€Šstandard deviation; BMI β€Š=β€Š body mass index; LSAS β€Š=β€Š Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale; SPAI β€Š=β€Š Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory; TPQ β€Š=β€Š Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire; BDI β€Š=β€Š Beck Depression Inventory; dβ€Š=β€Šdisorder.</p>1<p>Nβ€Š=β€Š165 because of one missing value.</p>2<p>Nβ€Š=β€Š143 because of missing values.</p><p>*β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><.05,</p><p>**β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><0.01,</p><p>***β€Š=β€Š<i>p</i><.001.</p

    Mean (Β±SEM) hair cortisol concentrations of patients with social phobia (SP) and healthy controls (HC).

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    <p>Mean (Β±SEM) hair cortisol concentrations of patients with social phobia (SP) and healthy controls (HC).</p

    Means (Β±SEM) of salivary cortisol responders and non-responders to the TSST for social phobia patients (SP) and healthy controls (HC).

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    <p>Means (Β±SEM) of salivary cortisol responders and non-responders to the TSST for social phobia patients (SP) and healthy controls (HC).</p

    Predictors of Hair Cortisol Levels.

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    <p>Results of the conditioned random forest regression as well as scatterplots for each important variable. Hair cortisol levels are displayed in original units (in pg/mg). Filled circles = patient group member. CAPS = Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale.</p

    Demographic Data, Hair-related Variables and Clinical Data for the Patient Group and the Healthy Control Group.

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    <p><b>Note.</b> PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; ETI = Early Trauma Inventory</p><p><sup>1</sup>related to the total number of hair samples, <i>n</i> = 19 for the group without childhood sexual abuse and <i>n</i> = 19 for the group with sexual abuse in childhood.</p><p><sup>2</sup>healthy controls without exposure to traumatic events were excluded from the analysis</p><p>Results of Saliva Cortisol and Heart Rate.</p

    Salivary Cortisol, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure across the Interview as a Function of Group (with and without Childhood Sexual Abuse).

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    <p>The mean reactivity of saliva cortisol (in original non-log-transformed units), heart rate and blood pressure response separately for the group with and without childhood sexual abuse. The error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (<i>SEM</i>). The blue-shaded area marks the average time of trauma assessment. β€œ*” indicates significant group difference at <i>p</i> ≀ .050, and β€œΒ·β€ at <i>p</i> ≀ .10 (with Bonferroni correction)</p

    Correlations between Hair Cortisol Concentrations, Severity of Childhood Adversities, Number of Traumatic Experiences and Psychopathology.

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    <p>* <i>p</i> ≀ .05.</p><p><i>pr</i> = partial correlation; CI = confidence interval; ETI = Early Trauma Inventory. PTSD = Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. <sup>1</sup> partial correlation were calculated for the Segment 1, controlling for the variable African-textured Hair</p><p>Correlations between Hair Cortisol Concentrations, Severity of Childhood Adversities, Number of Traumatic Experiences and Psychopathology.</p
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