2,746 research outputs found

    Math anxiety, intrusive thoughts and performance: Exploring the relationship between mathematics anxiety and performance: The role of intrusive thoughts

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    The current study examined the relationship between math anxiety and arithmetic performance by focusing on intrusive thoughts experienced during problem solving. Participants (N = 122) performed two-digit addition problems on a verification task. Math anxiety significantly predicted response time and error rate. Further, the extent to which intrusive thoughts impeded calculation mediated the relationship between math anxiety and per cent of errors on problems involving a carry operation. Moreover, results indicated that participants experienced a range of intrusive thoughts and these were related to significantly higher levels of math anxiety. The findings lend support to a deficient inhibition account of the math anxiety-to-performance relationship and highlight the importance of considering intrusive thoughts in future work

    The effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life noncancer care in acute hospital-based services: A systematic review

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    A systematic review was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life care with noncancer acute-based healthcare staff. Articles were included if they (1) focused on communication-skills training in end-of-life/palliative care for noncancer acute-based staff and (2) reported an outcome related to behavior change with regard to communication. Sixteen online databases were searched, which resulted in 4,038 potential articles. Screening of titles left 393 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Abstracts (n = 346) and full-text articles (n = 47) were reviewed, leaving 10 papers that met the criteria for our review. All articles explored the effect of communication-skills training on aspects of staff behavior; one study measured the effect on self-efficacy, another explored the impact on knowledge and competence, and another measured comfort levels in discussing the end of life with patients/families. Seven studies measured a number of outcomes, including confidence, attitude, preparedness, stress, and communication skills. Few studies have focused on end-of-life communication-skills training in noncancer acute-based services. Those that do have report positive effects on staff behavior with regard to communication about the end of life with patients and families. The studies varied in terms of the population studied and the health services involved, and they scored only moderately or weakly on quality. It is a challenge to draw a definite conclusion about the effectiveness of training interventions in end-of-life communication because of this. However, the findings from our review demonstrate the potential effectiveness of a range of training interventions with healthcare professionals on confidence, attitude, self-efficacy, and communication skills. Further research is needed to fully explore the effectiveness of existing training interventions in this population, and evidence using objective measures is particularly needed. Ideally, randomized controlled trials or studies using control groups and longer follow-ups are needed to test the effectiveness of interventions

    Factors affecting blind mobility

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    This thesis contains a survey of the mobility problems of blind people, experimental analysis and evaluation of these problems and suggestions for ways in which the evaluation of mobility performance and the design of mobility aids may be improved. The survey revealed a low level of mobility among blind people, with no significant improvement since a comparable survey in 1967. A group of self taught cane users were identified and their mobility was shown to be poor or potentially dangerous. Existing measures of mobility were unable to detect improvements in performance above that achieved by competent long cane users. By using newly devised measures of environmental awareness and of gait, the advantages of the Sonic Pathfinder were demonstrated. Existing measures of psychological stress were unsatisfactory. Heart rate is affected by physical effort and has been shown to be a poor indicator of moment-to-moment stress in blind mobility. Analysis of secondary task errors showed that they occurred while obstacles were being negotiated. They did not measure stress due to anticipation of obstacles or of danger. In contrast, step length, stride time and particularly speed all show significant anticipatory effects. The energy expended in walking a given distance is least at the walker's preferred speed. When guided, blind people walk at this most efficient pace. It is therefore suggested that the ratio of actual to preferred speed is the best measure of efficiency in mobility. Both guide dogs and aids which enhance preview allow pedestrians to walk at, or close to, their preferred speed. Further experiments are needed to establish the extent to which psychological stress is present during blind mobility, since none of the conventional measures, such as heart rate and mood checklists show consistent effects. Walking speed may well prove to be the most useful measure of such stress

    Male smokers' experiences of an appearance-focused facial-ageing intervention.

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    This study investigated 30 male smokers' experiences of an appearance-focused, facial-ageing intervention. Individual interviews (n = 21) and three focus groups (n = 9) were conducted. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Male smokers explained that viewing the impacts of smoking on their own faces was the most effective part of the intervention and 22 men (73%) said that they intended quitting smoking or reducing number of cigarettes smoked post-intervention. It is recommended that designers of appearance-focused interventions target men in the future as the current findings demonstrated that the majority of men engaged well with the intervention

    The impact of an appearance-focussed facial-ageing intervention on adolescents’ attitudes towards sun protection and UV exposure

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    The study investigated British adolescents’ experiences of an appearance-focussed, facial-ageing, morphing intervention designed to increase sun protection intentions. The study population consisted of 237 adolescents, 60 of whom were randomly allocated to participate in the appearance-focused intervention condition and 176 to a control condition. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Adolescents who had participated in the appearance-focussed intervention had significantly greater intentions to use sun protection, significantly more negative sun risk beliefs, lower sun benefit attitudes and higher perceived sun damage susceptibility after viewing the information given than participants in the control group. It is concluded that appearance-focussed interventions may be a useful tool to use when educating young people about the importance of protecting their skin from UV exposure

    Psychological interventions for improving adherence to inhaled therapies in people with cystic fibrosis

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    Objectives This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective of the review is to assess the eBicacy of psychological interventions for improving adherence to inhaled therapies in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). A secondary objective is to establish the most eBective components, or behaviour change techniques (BCTs), of interventions for improving adherence to inhaled therapies in people with CF, using the BCT Taxonomy version 1 (Michie 2013)

    The impact of an appearance-focussed facial-ageing intervention on adolescents’ attitudes towards sun protection and UV exposure

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    The study investigated British adolescents’ experiences of an appearance-focussed, facial-ageing, morphing intervention designed to increase sun protection intentions. The study population consisted of 237 adolescents, 60 of whom were randomly allocated to participate in the appearance-focused intervention condition and 176 to a control condition. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Adolescents who had participated in the appearance-focussed intervention had significantly greater intentions to use sun protection, significantly more negative sun risk beliefs, lower sun benefit attitudes and higher perceived sun damage susceptibility after viewing the information given than participants in the control group. It is concluded that appearance-focussed interventions may be a useful tool to use when educating young people about the importance of protecting their skin from UV exposure

    Randomised controlled trial comparing uptake of NHS Health Check in response to standard letters, risk-personalised letters and telephone invitations

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    Background NHS Health Check is a primary prevention programme offering cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment to adults in England aged 40–74. Uptake remains a challenge and invitation method is a strong predictor of uptake. There is evidence of low uptake when using invitation letters. Telephone invitations might increase uptake, but are not widely used. We explored the potential to improve uptake through personalising letters to patient’s CVD risk, and to compare this with generic letters and telephone invitations. Methods HEalth Check TRial (HECTR) was a three-arm randomised controlled trial in nine general practices in Staffordshire (UK). Eligible patients were randomised to be invited to a NHS Health Check using one of three methods: standard letter (control); telephone invitation; letter personalised to the patient’s CVD risk. The primary outcome was attendance/non-attendance. Data were collected on a range of patient- and practice-level factors (e.g., patient socio-demographics, CVD risk, practice size, Health Checks outside usual working hours). Multi-level logistic regression estimated the marginal effects to explore whether invitation method predicted attendance. Invitation costs were collated from practices to estimate cost benefit. Results In total, 4614 patients were included in analysis (mean age 50.2 ± 8.0 yr.; 52.4% female). Compared with patients invited by standard letter (30.9%), uptake was significantly higher in those invited by telephone (47.6%, P < .001), but not personalised letter (31.3%, p = .812). In multi-level analysis, compared with the standard letter arm, likelihood of attendance was 18 percentage points higher in the telephone arm and 4 percentage points higher in the personalised letter arm. The effect of telephone calls appeared strongest in patients who were younger and had lower CVD risk. We estimated per 1000 patients invited, risk-personalised letters could result in 40 additional attended Health Checks (at no extra cost) and telephone invitations could result in 180 additional Health Checks at an additional cost of £240. Conclusions Telephone invitations should be advocated to address the substantial deficit between current and required levels of NHS uptake, and could be targeted at younger and lower CVD risk adults. Risk-personalised letters should be explored further in a larger sample of high risk individuals

    “They are saying it’s high, but I think it’s quite low”: exploring cardiovascular disease risk communication in NHS health checks through video-stimulated recall interviews with patients – a qualitative study

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    Background: NHS Health Check (NHSHC) is a national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk identification and management programme. However, evidence suggests a limited understanding of the most used metric to communicate CVD risk with patients (10-year percentage risk). This study used novel application of video-stimulated recall interviews to understand patient perceptions and understanding of CVD risk following an NHSHC that used one of two different CVD risk calculators. Methods: Qualitative, semi-structured video-stimulated recall interviews were conducted with patients (n = 40) who had attended an NHSHC using either the QRISK2 10-year risk calculator (n = 19) or JBS3 lifetime CVD risk calculator (n = 21). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Analysis resulted in the development of four themes: variability in understanding, relief about personal risk, perceived changeability of CVD risk, and positive impact of visual displays. The first three themes were evident across the two patient groups, regardless of risk calculator; the latter related to JBS3 only. Patients felt relieved about their CVD risk, yet there were differences in understanding between calculators. Heart age within JBS3 prompted more accessible risk appraisal, yet mixed understanding was evident for both calculators. Event-free survival age also resulted in misunderstanding. QRISK2 patients tended to question the ability for CVD risk to change, while risk manipulation through JBS3 facilitated this understanding. Displaying information visually also appeared to enhance understanding. Conclusions: Effective communication of CVD risk within NHSHC remains challenging, and lifetime risk metrics still lead to mixed levels of understanding in patients. However, visual presentation of information, alongside risk manipulation during NHSHCs can help to increase understanding and prompt risk-reducing lifestyle changes. Trial registration: ISRCTN10443908. Registered 7th February 2017

    Quantitative examination of video-recorded NHS Health Checks: comparison of the use of QRISK2 versus JBS3 cardiovascular risk calculators

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    Objectives Quantitatively examine the content of National Health Service Health Check (NHSHC), patient–practitioner communication balance and differences when using QRISK2 versus JBS3 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators. Design RIsk COmmunication in NHSHC was a qualitative study with quantitative process evaluation, comparing NHSHC using QRISK2 or JBS3. We present data from the quantitative process evaluation. Setting and participants Twelve general practices in the West Midlands (England) conducted NHSHC using JBS3 or QRISK2 (6/group). Patients were eligible for NHSHC based on national criteria (aged 40–74, no existing cardiovascular-related diagnoses, not taking statins). Recruitment was stratified by patients’ age, gender and ethnicity. Methods Video recordings of NHSHC were coded, second-by- second, to quantify who was speaking and what was being discussed. Outcomes included consultation duration, practitioner verbal dominance (ratio of practitioner:patient speaking time (pr:pt ratio)) and proportion of time discussing CVD risk, risk factors and risk management. Results 173 video-recorded NHSHC were analysed (73 QRISK, 100 JBS3). The sample was 51% women, 83% white British, with approximately equal proportions across age groups. NHSHC duration varied greatly (6.8–38.0 min). Most (60%) lasted less than 20 min. On average, CVD risk was discussed for less than 2 min (9.06%±4.30% of consultation time). There were indications that, compared with NHSHC using JBS3, those with QRISK2 involved less CVD risk discussion (JBS3 M=10.24%, CI: 8.01–12.48 vs QRISK2 M=7.44%, CI: 5.29–9.58) and were more verbally dominated by practitioners (pr:pt ratio JBS3 M=3.21%, CI: 2.44–3.97 vs QRISK2=2.35%, CI: 1.89–2.81). The largest proportion of NHSHC time was spent discussing causal risk factors (M=37.54%, CI: 32.92–42.17). Conclusions There was wide variation in NHSHC duration. Many were short and practitioner-dominated, with little time discussing CVD risk. JBS3 appears to extend CVD risk discussion and patient contribution. Qualitative examination of how it is used is necessary to fully understand the potential benefits of these difference
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