24 research outputs found

    The Use of Triboemission Imaging and Charge Measurements to Study DLC Coating Failure

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    We present a study on the simultaneous evolution of the electron emission and surface charge accumulation that occurs during scratching tests in order to monitor coating failure. Steel discs coated with a diamond-like-carbon (DLC) film were scratched in both vacuum (~10−5 Torr) and atmospheric conditions, with electron emission and surface charge being measured by a system of microchannel plates and an electrometer, respectively. The results highlight a positive correlation between emission intensity values, surface charge measurements and surface damage topography, suggesting the effective use of these techniques to monitor coating wear in real time

    Defects drive the tribocharging strength of PTFE: An ab-initio study

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    If polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), commonly known as Teflon, is put into contact and rubbed against another material, almost surely it will be more effective than its counterpart in collecting negative charges. This simple, basic property is captured by the so called triboelectric series, where PTFE ranks extremely high, and that qualitatively orders materials in terms of their ability to electrostatically charge upon contact and rubbing. However, while classifying materials, the series does not provide an explanation of their triboelectric strength, besides a loose correlation with the workfunction. Indeed, despite being an extremely familiar process, known from centuries, tribocharging is still elusive and not fully understood. In this work we employ density functional theory to look for the origin of PTFE tribocharging strength. We study how charge transfers when pristine or defective PTFE is put in contact with different clean and oxidized metals. Our results show the important role played by defects in enhancing charge transfer. Interestingly and unexpectedly our results show that negatively charged chains are more stable than neutral ones, if slightly bent. Indeed deformations can be easily promoted in polymers as PTFE, especially in tribological contacts. These results suggest that, in designing materials in view of their triboelectric properties, the characteristics of their defects could be a performance determining factor

    Enhancing the activity of platinum-based drugs by improved inhibitors of ERCC1–XPF-mediated DNA repair

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    Purpose: The ERCC1–XPF 5â€Č–3â€Č DNA endonuclease complex is involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and in the DNA inter-strand crosslink repair pathway, two key mechanisms modulating the activity of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents in cancer cells. Inhibitors of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF can be used to sensitize cancer cells to such drugs. Methods: We tested recently synthesized new generation inhibitors of this interaction and evaluated their capacity to sensitize cancer cells to the genotoxic activity of agents in synergy studies, as well as their capacity to inhibit the protein–protein interaction in cancer cells using proximity ligation assay. Results: Compound B9 showed the best activity being synergistic with cisplatin and mitomycin C in both colon and lung cancer cells. Also, B9 abolished the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF in cancer cells as shown by proximity ligation assay. Results of different compounds correlated with values from our previously obtained in silico predictions. Conclusion: Our results confirm the feasibility of the approach of targeting the protein–protein interaction between ERCC1 and XPF to sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents, thanks to the improved binding affinity of the newly synthesized compounds

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries