12,177 research outputs found

    Psychological effects of music tempi during exercise

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music tempi on intrinsic motivation, flow, and music tempo preference during longduration exercise (~ 26 min). Subjects (n = 29) selected the music of a single artist then walked at 70% of maximum heart rate reserve (maxHRR) on a treadmill under three experimental conditions (medium tempi, fast tempi, and mixed tempi) and a no-music control. A tempo preference item, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Flow State Scale-2 were completed after each trial. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model (Gender × Condition) ANOVA and MANOVA. The Gender × Condition interaction was nonsignificant in both analyses (p > 0.05). Contrary to expectations, higher preference scores were recorded for medium tempi than for mixed tempi (means: 7.8 ± 1.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.1). The medium tempi music also yielded the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that interest-enjoyment was higher for medium tempi when compared to mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.80–8.48, p = 0.001, and that each of the experimental conditions yielded higher scores than the no-music control. Also, pressure-tension was lower for medium tempi compared to fast tempi, 95% CI = – 3.44–0.19, p = 0.022, and for both medium and mixed tempi compared to control (95% CI = – 5.33–2.89, p = 0.000; 95% CI = – 4.24–0.64, p = 0.004). A main effect was found for global flow (p = 0.000) with the highest mean score evident in the medium tempi condition (14.6 ± 1.5). Follow-up comparisons indicated that the medium tempi condition yielded higher flow scores than the control, 95% CI = 1.25–3.60, p = .000, as did fast tempi, 95% CI = 0.89–3.14, p = 0.000, and mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.36–3.76, p = 0.000. It was concluded that a medium tempi music program was the most appropriate for an exercise intensity of 70%maxHRR

    Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating adults with acute asthma in the emergency department.

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    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by airways inflammation, constriction of airway smooth muscle and structural alteration of the airways that is at least partially reversible. Exacerbations of asthma can be life threatening and place a significant burden on healthcare services. Various guidelines have been published to inform management personnel in the acute setting; several include the use of a single bolus of intravenous magnesium sulfate (IV MgSO4) in cases that do not respond to first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this approach remains unclear, particularly in less severe cases. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of IV MgSO4 in adults treated for acute asthma in the emergency department. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Review Group Specialised Register (CAGR) up to 2 May 2014. We also searched www.ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of other reviews, and we contacted trial authors to ask for additional information. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults treated in the emergency department (ED) for exacerbations of asthma if they compared any dose of IV MgSO4 with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All review authors screened titles and abstracts for inclusion, and at least two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, risk of bias and numerical data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, and we contacted trial investigators to obtain missing information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios using study participants as the unit of analysis, and we analysed continuous data as mean differences or standardised mean differences using fixed-effect models. We rated all outcomes using GRADE and presented results in Summary of findings table 1.We carried out subgroup analyses on the primary outcome for baseline severity of exacerbations and whether or not ipratropium bromide was given as a co-medication. Unpublished data and studies at high risk of bias for blinding were removed from the main analysis in sensitivity analyses. MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, randomly assigning 2313 people with acute asthma to the comparisons of interest in this review.Most studies were double-blinded trials comparing a single infusion of 1.2 g or 2 g IV MgSO4 over 15 to 30 minutes versus a matching placebo. Eleven were conducted at a single centre, and three were multi-centre trials. Participants in almost all of the studies had already been given at least oxygen, nebulised short-acting beta2-agonists and IV corticosteroids in the ED; in some studies, investigators also administered ipratropium bromide. Ten studies included only adults, and four included both adults and children; these were included because the mean age of participants was over 18 years.Intravenous MgSO4 reduced hospital admissions compared with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.92; I(2) = 28%, P value 0.18; n = 972; high-quality evidence). In absolute terms, this odds ratio translates into a reduction of seven hospital admissions for every 100 adults treated with IV MgSO4 (95% CI two to 13 fewer). The test for subgroup differences revealed no statistical heterogeneity between the three severity subgroups (I(2) = 0%, P value 0.73) or between the four studies that administered nebulised ipratropium bromide as a co-medication and those that did not (I(2) = 0%, P value 0.82). Sensitivity analyses in which unpublished data and studies at high risk for blinding were removed from the primary analysis did not change conclusions.Within the secondary outcomes, high- and moderate-quality evidence across three spirometric indices suggests some improvement in lung function with IV MgSO4. No difference was found between IV MgSO4and placebo for most of the non-spirometric secondary outcomes, all of which were rated as low or moderate quality (intensive care admissions, ED treatment duration, length of hospital stay, readmission, respiration rate, systolic blood pressure).Adverse events were inconsistently reported and were not meta-analysed. The most commonly cited adverse events in the IV MgSO4 groups were flushing, fatigue, nausea and headache and hypotension (low blood pressure). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence that a single infusion of 1.2 g or 2 g IV MgSO4 over 15 to 30 minutes reduces hospital admissions and improves lung function in adults with acute asthma who have not responded sufficiently to oxygen, nebulised short-acting beta2-agonists and IV corticosteroids. Differences in the ways the trials were conducted made it difficult for the review authors to assess whether severity of the exacerbation or additional co-medications altered the treatment effect of IV MgSO4. Limited evidence was found for other measures of benefit and safety.Studies conducted in these populations should clearly define baseline severity parameters and systematically record adverse events. Studies recruiting participants with exacerbations of varying severity should consider subgrouping results on the basis of accepted severity classifications

    Implications of new data in charmless B decays

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    Based on the latest experimental data of BππB \to \pi\pi and πK\pi K modes, a model-independent analytical analysis is presented. The CP-averaged branching ratio difference ΔR=RcRn\Delta R = R_c - R_n in BπKB\to \pi K decays with Rc=2Br(π0K)/Br(πKˉ0)R_c = 2Br(\pi^0K^-)/Br(\pi^-\bar{K}^0) and Rn=Br(π+K)/2Br(π0Kˉ0)R_n =Br(\pi^+K^-)/2Br(\pi^0\bar{K}^0) is reduced though it remains larger than the prediction from the standard model(SM) as both measured RnR_n and RcR_c are enhanced, which indicates that a room for new physics becomes smaller. The present data of ππ\pi\pi decay reduce the ratio C/T|C/T| from the previous value of C/T0.8|C/T|\simeq 0.8 to C/T0.65|C/T| \simeq 0.65, which is still larger than the theoretical estimations based on QCD factorization and pQCD. Within SM and flavor SU(3) symmetry, the current πK\pi K data also diminish the ratio C/T|C'/T'| from the previous value C/T2|C'/T'| \simeq 2 to C/T1.16|C'/T'| \simeq 1.16 with a large strong phase δC2.65\delta_{C'} \simeq -2.65, while its value remains much larger than the one extracted from the ππ\pi \pi modes. The direct CP violation ACP(π0Kˉ0)A_{CP}(\pi^0\bar{K}^0) is predicted to be ACP(π0Kˉ0)=0.15±0.03A_{CP}(\pi^0\bar{K}^0) = -0.15\pm0.03, which is consistent with the present data. Two kinds of new effects in both strong and weak phases of the electroweak penguin diagram are considered. It is found that both cases can reduce the ratio to C/T=0.400.80|C'/T'| = 0.40\sim 0.80 and lead to roughly the same predictions for CP violation in π0K0\pi^0 K^0.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure

    Exclusive BPVB \to PV Decays and CP Violation in the General two-Higgs-doublet Model

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    We calculate all the branching ratios and direct CP violations of BPVB \to PV decays in a most general two-Higgs-doublet model with spontaneous CP violation. As the model has rich CP-violating sources, it is shown that the new physics effects to direct CP violations and branching ratios in some channels can be significant when adopting the generalized factorization approach to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements, which provides good signals for probing new physics beyond the SM in the future B experiments.Comment: 21 page

    Psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic effects of music in swimming

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    OBJECTIVES: Existing work using dry land exercise-related activities has shown that the careful application of music can lead to a range of benefits that include enhanced affect, lower perceived exertion, greater energy efficiency, and faster time trial performances. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic effects of asynchronous music in swimming using a mixed-methods approach. DESIGN: A mixed-model design was employed wherein there was a within-subjects factor (two experimental conditions and a control) and a between-subjects factor (gender). The experimental component of the study was supplemented by qualitative data that were analysed using inductive content analysis. METHODS: Twenty six participants (Mage = 20.0 years, age range: 18–23 years) underwent a period of habituation with Speedo Aquabeat MP3 players prior to the experimental phase. They were then administered two experimental trials (motivational and oudeterous music at 130 bpm) and a no-music control, during which they engaged in a 200-m freestyle swimming time trial. RESULTS: Participants swam significantly faster when exposed to either music condition relative to control (p = .022, ηp2=.18). Moreover, the music conditions were associated with higher state motivation (p = .016, ηp2=.15) and more dissociative thoughts (p = .014, ηp2=.16). CONCLUSIONS: Findings supported the hypothesis that the use of asynchronous music during a high-intensity task can have an ergogenic effect; this was in the order of 2% when averaged out across the two experimental conditions. The use of music, regardless of its motivational qualities, resulted in higher self-reported motivation as well as more dissociative thoughts

    Zoom-in-Net: Deep Mining Lesions for Diabetic Retinopathy Detection

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    We propose a convolution neural network based algorithm for simultaneously diagnosing diabetic retinopathy and highlighting suspicious regions. Our contributions are two folds: 1) a network termed Zoom-in-Net which mimics the zoom-in process of a clinician to examine the retinal images. Trained with only image-level supervisions, Zoomin-Net can generate attention maps which highlight suspicious regions, and predicts the disease level accurately based on both the whole image and its high resolution suspicious patches. 2) Only four bounding boxes generated from the automatically learned attention maps are enough to cover 80% of the lesions labeled by an experienced ophthalmologist, which shows good localization ability of the attention maps. By clustering features at high response locations on the attention maps, we discover meaningful clusters which contain potential lesions in diabetic retinopathy. Experiments show that our algorithm outperform the state-of-the-art methods on two datasets, EyePACS and Messidor.Comment: accepted by MICCAI 201

    Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Associated Ulcerative Colitis in a Teenager

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    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare entity that is extremely uncommon in children. Its diagnosis is also a clinical challenge. This form of chronic pancreatitis often presents itself with obstructive jaundice and/or a pancreatic mass and it is sometimes misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with obstructive jaundice and a 4 cm mass in the head of the pancreas that was diagnosed as AIP with associated ulcerative colitis.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Deletion within the Src homology domain 3 of Bruton's tyrosine kinase resulting in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA).

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    The gene responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) has been recently identified to code for a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, BTK), required for normal B cell development. BTK, like many other cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, contains Src homology domains (SH2 and SH3), and catalytic kinase domain. SH3 domains are important for the targeting of signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. We have identified a family with XLA whose affected members have a point mutation (g--&gt;a) at the 5' splice site of intron 8, resulting in the skipping of coding exon 8 and loss of 21 amino acids forming the COOH-terminal portion of the BTK SH3 domain. The study of three generations within this kinship, using restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA analysis, allowed identification of the mutant X chromosome responsible for XLA and the carrier status in this family. BTK mRNA was present in normal amounts in Epstein-Barr virus-induced B lymphoblastoid cell lines established from affected family members. Although the SH3 deletion did not alter BTK protein stability and kinase activity of the truncated BTK protein was normal, the affected patients nevertheless have a severe B cell defect characteristic for XLA. The mutant protein was modeled using the normal BTK SH3 domain. The deletion results in loss of two COOH-terminal beta strands containing several residues critical for the formation of the putative SH3 ligand-binding pocket. We predict that, as a result, one or more crucial SH3 binding proteins fail to interact with BTK, interrupting the cytoplasmic signal transduction process required for B cell differentiation

    A grounded theory of music use in the psychological preparation of academy soccer players

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from American Psychological Association via the DOI in this record. The main objectives of the present study are (a) to examine soccer players’ use of music to psychologically prepare for performance and (b) to present a grounded theory to illuminate this phenomenon. Thirty-four academy soccer players (Mage = 17.9 years, SD = 1.6 years) were selected from a U.K. Premier League soccer club. Individual- and group-based questionnaires, reflective journals, and interviews were administered. Corbin and Strauss’s (2015) variant of grounded theory was adopted, which is underpinned by pragmatism and symbolic interactionism. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. Moreover, the data were continually compared with previous literature to verify methodological coherence, propose new methods, and develop a substantive grounded theory model. The findings document the use of music as a stimulant and regulator of emotion prior to performance, as well as its propensity to develop shared meanings and contribute to a sense of group identity. The analysis brought to light personal-, group-, and task-related factors that moderate the influence of music on the psychological state of young soccer players. A unique finding to emerge was the degree to which the music preferences of senior players were readily accepted by junior players. The present study provides evidence of the role that naturalistic research can play in fathoming and harnessing the emotive and encultured power of music within the social spheres of elite team sports. All emergent concepts can be used as a template to guide soccer players and practitioners in the use of music and to frame future research efforts.Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Brazi

    On the stability and relevance of the exercise heart rate-music-tempo preference relationship

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    Objectives: To examine the stability of the cubic (two points of inflection) exercise heart rate-music-tempo preference relationship found by Karageorghis et al. (2011) in cycle ergometry using a different exercise modality (treadmill exercise). To advance previous related studies through the inclusion of psychological outcome variables (e.g., state attention and intrinsic motivation) and post-experiment interviews. Design: A mixed-model experimental design was employed with two within-subject factors (exercise intensity and music tempo) and a between-subjects factor (gender). The experiment was supplemented by qualitative data that were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Methods: Participants (n = 22) exercised at six intensities (40-90% maxHRR) during which they were exposed to music tracks at four tempi and a no-music control. Music preference, affective valence, and perceived activation were assessed during the task. Immediately afterwards, an attentional focus item, the short Flow State Scale-2 and items from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory were administered. A subsample of participants (n = 8) was interviewed using a schedule of open-ended questions. Results: Results did not support a cubic relationship but rather a quadratic one (one point of inflection), and there was a weak association between the optimal choice of music tempo and positive psychological outcomes. Conclusions: The range of preferred tempi for treadmill exercise (123-131 bpm) was narrower than that for cycle ergometry (125-140 bpm). Regardless of its tempo, music reduced the number of associative thoughts by ∼10% across all exercise intensities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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