759 research outputs found

### Hydrodynamic pressures on sloping dams during earthquakes. Part 2. Exact theory

The equations for the earthquake forces on a rigid dam with an inclined upstream face of constant slope are solved exactly by two-dimensional potential-flow theory. The distribution of the hydrodynamic pressure along the upstream face and the total horizontal, vertical and normal loads on the dam are computed from the integral solutions. The results obtained from the exact theory are compared with those derived from the momentum-balance method and there is reasonable agreement

### Hydromechanics of low-Reynolds-number flow. Part 1. Rotation of axisymmetric prolate bodies

The present series of studies is concerned with low-Reynolds-number flow in general; the main objective is to develop an effective method of solution for arbitrary body shapes. In this first part, consideration is given to the viscous flow generated by pure rotation of an axisymmetric body having an arbitrary prolate form, the inertia forces being assumed to have a negligible effect on the flow. The method of solution explored here is based on a spatial distribution of singular torques, called rotlets, by which the rotational motion of a given body can be represented.
Exact solutions are determined in closed form for a number of body shapes, including the dumbbell profile, elongated rods and some prolate forms. In the special case of prolate spheroids, the present exact solution agrees with that of Jeffery (1922), this being one of very few cases where previous exact solutions are available for comparison. The velocity field and the total torque are derived, and their salient features discussed for several representative and limiting cases. The moment coefficient C[sub]M = M/(8[pi][mu][omega sub 0]ab^2) (M being the torque of an
axisymmetric body of length 2a and maximum radius b rotating at angular velocity [omega], about its axis in a fluid of viscosity [mu]) of various body shapes so far investigated is found to lie between 2/3 and 1, usually very near unity for not extremely slender bodies.
For slender bodies, an asymptotic relationship is found between the nose curvature and the rotlet strength near the end of its axial distribution. It is also found that the theory, when applied to slender bodies, remains valid at higher Reynolds numbers than was originally intended, so long as they are small compared with the (large) aspect ratio of the body, before the inertia effects become significant

### Hydromechanics of low-Reynolds-number flow. Part 4. Translation of spheroids

The problem of a uniform transverse flow past a prolate spheroid of arbitrary aspect ratio at low Reynolds numbers has been analysed by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The solution is found to depend on two Reynolds numbers, one based on the semi-minor axis b, R[sub]b = Ub/v, and the other on the semi-major axis a, R[sub]a = Ua/v (U being the free-stream velocity at infinity, which is perpendicular to the major axis of the spheroid, and v the kinematic viscosity of the fluid). A drag formula is obtained for small values of R[sub]b and arbitrary values of R[sub]a. When R[sub]a is also small, the present drag formula reduces to the Oberbeck (1876) result for Stokes flow past a spheroid, and it gives the Oseen (1910) drag for an infinitely long cylinder when R[sub]a tends to infinity. This result thus provides a clear physical picture and explanation of the 'Stokes paradox' known in viscous flow theory

### Hydromechanics of low-Reynolds-number flow. Part 2. Singularity method for Stokes flows

The present study furthcr explores the fundamental singular solutions for Stokes flow that can be useful for constructing solutions over a wide range of free-stream profiles and body shapes. The primary singularity is the Stokeslet, which is associated with a singular point force embedded in a Stokes flow. From its derivatives other fundamental singularities can be obtained, including rotlets, stresslets, potential doublets and higher-order poles derived from them. For treating interior Stokes-flow problems new fundamental solutions are introduced; they
include the Stokeson and its derivatives, called the roton and stresson.
These fundamental singularities are employed here to construct exact solutions to a number of exterior and interior Stokes-flow problems for several specific body shapes translating and rotating in a viscous fluid which may itself be providing a primary flow. The different primary flows considered here include the uniform stream, shear flows, parabolic profiles and extensional flows (hyperbolic
profiles), while the body shapcs cover prolate spheroids, spheres and circular cylinders. The salient features of these exact solutions (all obtained in closed form) regarding the types of singularities required for the construction of a solution in each specific case, their distribution densities and the range of validity of the solution, which may depend on the characteristic Reynolds numbers and governing geometrical parameters, are discussed

### Generation of solitary waves by forward- and backward-step bottom forcing

A finite difference method based on the Euler equations is developed for computing waves and wave resistance due to different bottom topographies moving steadily at the critical velocity in shallow water. A two-dimensional symmetric and slowly
varying bottom topography, as a forcing for wave generation, can be viewed as a combination of fore and aft parts. For a positive topography (a bump), the fore part is a forward-step forcing, which contributes to the generation of upstream-advancing solitary waves, whereas the aft part is a backward-step forcing to which a depressed water surface region and a trailing wavetrain are attributed. These two wave systems respectively radiate upstream and downstream without mutual interaction. For a negative topography (a hollow), the fore part is a backward step and the aft part is a forward step. The downstream-radiating waves generated by the backwardstep forcing at the fore part will interact with the upstream-running waves generated by the forward-step forcing at the aft. Therefore, the wave system generated by a negative topography is quite different from that by a positive topography. The generation period of solitary waves is slightly longer and the instantaneous drag fluctuation is skewed for a negative topography. When the length of the negative topography increases, the oscillation of the wave-resistance coeffcient with time does not coincide with the period of solitary wave emission.published_or_final_versio

### Scattering and radiation of water waves by permeable barriers

The two-dimensional problems of scattering and radiation of small-amplitude water waves by thin vertical porous plates in finite water depth are considered using the linear water wave theory. Applying the method of eigenfunction expansion, these boundary value problems are converted to certain dual series relations. Solutions to these relations are then obtained by a suitable application of the least squares method. For the scattering problem, four different basic configurations of the barriers are investigated, namely, ~I! a surface-piercing barrier, ~II! a bottom-standing barrier, ~III! a totally submerged barrier, and ~IV! a barrier with a gap. The performance of these types of barriers as a breakwater are examined by studying the variation of their reflection and transmission coefficients, hydrodynamic forces and moments for different values of the porous effect parameter
defined by Chwang @J. Fluid Mech. 132, 395â€“406 ~1983!#, or the Chwang parameter. For the radiation problem, three types of wavemakers, which resemble types ~I!, ~II!, and ~III! of the above-mentioned configuration, are analyzed. The dependence of the amplitude to stroke ratio on other parameters is also investigated to study the features of these wavemakers. Â© 2000 American Institute of Physics.published_or_final_versio

### Unsteady free-surface waves due to a submerged body moving in a viscous fluid

Unsteady viscous free-surface waves generated by a three-dimensional submerged body moving in an incompressible fluid of infinite depth are investigated analytically. It is assumed that the body experiences a Heaviside step change in velocity at the initial instant. Two categories of the velocity change, (i) from zero to a constant and (ii) from a constant to zero, will be analyzed. The flow is assumed to be laminar and the submerged body is mathematically represented by an Oseenlet. The Green functions for the unbounded unsteady Oseen flows are derived. The solutions in closed integral form for the wave profiles are given. By employing Lighthill's two-stage scheme, the asymptotic representations of free-surface waves in the far wake for large Reynolds numbers are derived. It is shown that the effects of viscosity and submergence depth on the free-surface wave profiles are respectively expressed by the exponential decay factors. Furthermore, the unsteady wave system due to the suddenly starting body consists of two families of steady-state waves and two families of nonstationary waves, which are confined within a finite region. As time increases, the waves move away from the body and the finite region extends to an infinite V-shaped region. It is found that the nonstationary waves are the transient response to the suddenly started motion of the body. The waves due to a suddenly stopping body consist of a transient component only, which vanish as time approaches infinity.published_or_final_versio

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