974 research outputs found

    Equivalent width, shape and proper motion of the iron fluorescent line emission from the molecular clouds as an indicator of the illuminating source X-ray flux history

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    Observations of the diffuse emission in the 8--22 keV energy range, elongated parallel to the Galactic plane (Sunyaev et al. 1993) and detection of the strong 6.4 keV fluorescent line with \sim 1 keV equivalent width from some giant molecular clouds (e.g. Sgr B2) in the Galactic Centre region (Koyama 1994) suggest that the neutral matter of these clouds is (or was) illuminated by powerful X-ray radiation, which gave rise to the reprocessed radiation. The source of this radiation remains unknown. Transient source close to the Sgr B2 cloud or short outburst of the X-ray emission from supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre are the two prime candidates under consideration. We argue that new generation of X-ray telescopes combining very high sensitivity and excellent energy and angular resolutions would be able to discriminate between these two possibilities studying time dependent changes of the morphology of the surface brightness distribution, the equivalent width and the shape of the fluorescent line in the Sgr B2 and other molecular clouds in the region. We note also that detection of broad and complex structures near the 6.4 keV line in the spectra of distant AGNs, which are X-ray weak now, may prove the presence of violent activity of the central engines of these objects in the past. Accurate measurements of the line shape may provide an information on the time elapsed since the outburst. Proper motion (super or subluminal) of the fluorescent radiation wave front can give additional information on the location of the source. Observations of the described effects can provide unique information on the matter distribution inside Sgr B2 and other giant molecular clouds.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    (No) dimming of X-ray clusters beyond z~1 at fixed mass: crude redhshifts and masses from raw X-ray and SZ data

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    Scaling relations in the LCDM Cosmology predict that for a given mass the clusters formed at larger redshift are hotter, denser and therefore more luminous in X-rays than their local z~0 counterparts. This effect overturns the decrease in the observable X-ray flux so that it does not decrease at z > 1, similar to the SZ signal. Provided that scaling relations remain valid at larger redshifts, X-ray surveys will not miss massive clusters at any redshift, no matter how far they are. At the same time, the difference in scaling with mass and distance of the observable SZ and X-ray signals from galaxy clusters at redshifts z2z\lesssim 2 offers a possibility to crudely estimate the redshift and the mass of a cluster. This might be especially useful for preselection of massive high-redshift clusters and planning of optical follow-up for overlapping surveys in X-ray (e.g., by SRG/eRosita) and SZ (e.g. Planck, SPT and ACT).Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, MNRAS accepte

    Frequency resolved spectroscopy of Cyg X-1: fast variability of the reflected emission in the soft state

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    Using the RXTE/PCA data we study the fast variability of the reflected emission in the soft spectral state of Cyg X-1 by means of Fourier frequency resolved spectroscopy. We find that the rms amplitude of variations of the reflected emission has the same frequency dependence as the primary radiation down to time scales of <30-50 msec. This might indicate that the reflected flux reproduces, with nearly flat response, variations of the primary emission. Such behavior differs notably from the hard spectral state, in which variations of the reflected flux are significantly suppressed in comparison with the primary emission, on time scales shorter than ~0.5-1 sec. If related to the finite light crossing time of the reflector, these results suggest that the characteristic size of the reflector -- presumably an optically thick accretion disk, in the hard spectral state is larger by a factor of >5-10 than in the soft spectral state. Modeling the transfer function of the disk, we estimate the inner radius of the accretion disk R_in~100R_g in the hard and R_in<10R_g in the soft state for a 10M_sun black hole.Comment: submitted to MNRA

    Confinement and diffusion time-scales of CR hadrons in AGN-inflated bubbles

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    While rich clusters are powerful sources of X-rays, gamma-ray emission from these large cosmic structures has not been detected yet. X-ray radiative energy losses in the central regions of relaxed galaxy clusters are so strong that one needs to consider special sources of energy, likely AGN feedback, to suppress catastrophic cooling of the gas. We consider a model of AGN feedback that postulates that the AGN supplies the energy to the gas by inflating bubbles of relativistic plasma, whose energy content is dominated by cosmic-ray (CR) hadrons. If most of these hadrons can quickly escape the bubbles, then collisions of CRs with thermal protons in the intracluster medium (ICM) should lead to strong gamma-ray emission, unless fast diffusion of CRs removes them from the cluster. Therefore, the lack of detections with modern gamma-ray telescopes sets limits on the confinement time of CR hadrons in bubbles and CR diffusive propagation in the ICM.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Soft state of Cygnus X-1: stable disk and unstable corona

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    Two component X-ray spectra (soft multicolor black body plus harder power law) are frequently observed from accreting black holes. These components are presumably associated with the different parts of the accretion flow (optically thick and optically thin respectively) in the vicinity of the compact source. Most of the aperiodic variability of the X-ray flux on the short time scales is associated with the harder component. We suggest that drastically different amplitudes of variability of these two components are simply related to the very different viscous time scales in the geometrically thin and geometrically thick parts of the accretion flow. In the geometrically thin disks variations of viscosity or mass accretion rate occurring at large radius from the black hole on the local dynamical or thermal time scales do not cause any significant variations of the mass accretion rate at smaller radii due to a very long diffusion time. Any variations on the time scales shorter than the diffusion time scale are effectively dampened. On the contrary such variations can easily survive in the geometrically thick flows and as a result the mass accretion rate in the innermost region of the flow will reflect modulations of the mass accretion rate added to the flow at any distance from the black hole. Therefore if primary instabilities operate on the short time scales then the stability of the soft component (originating from the geometrically thin and optically thick flow) and variability of the hard component (coming from the geometrically thick and optically thin flow) are naturally explained.Comment: 8 pages; accepted for publication in MNRAS; replaced with accepted versio