1,299 research outputs found

    A Bayesian binary algorithm for root mean squared-based acoustic signal segmentation

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    Changepoint analysis (also known as segmentation analysis) aims to analyze an ordered, one-dimensional vector in order to find locations where some characteristic of the data changes. Many models and algorithms have been studied under this theme, including models for changes in mean and/or variance, changes in linear regression parameters, etc. This work is interested in an algorithm for the segmentation of long duration acoustic signals; the segmentation is based on the change of the root-mean-square power of the signal. It investigates a Bayesian model with two possible parameterizations and proposes a binary algorithm in two versions using non-informative or informative priors. These algorithms are tested in the segmentation of annotated acoustic signals from the Alcatrazes marine preservation park in Brazil

    Effectiveness of QR Code Technology for the Child User’s Informal Learning

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    Quick Response (QR) code technology plays an important role in scaffolding the child user’s active learning in informal environments. This study examines the impact of mobile phones and QR codes on two informal learning outcomes: increased interest and greater knowledge understanding. Ninety-one children and their families participated in the study as part of the iQ Zoo Project. Qualitative findings suggest that most children’s interest in learning about animals was either maintained or increased as a result of the experience. Quantitative results reveal that QR Code Technology was effective in promoting knowledge gains, especially on subjects that are challenging for the informal learner

    Tapping Into Your Inner Superhero: Positive Interventions for At-Risk Youth Organizations

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    Childhood poverty has been linked with gaps in physical, emotional, and cognitive outcomes. Previous research sheds light on potential interventions for helping at-risk youth. We combine these findings with proven positive psychology interventions to create a curriculum for an organization serving at-risk youth in Trenton, New Jersey. The workshops are geared towards teaching components that enable lasting well-being using existing positive psychology frameworks, such as Martin Seligman’s PERMA. We also adapt lessons using VIA Character Strengths and resiliency factors for an adolescent population, and leverage behavioral modeling, self-agency, and environmental mastery to create sustainable programming. If successful, these interventions may teach us how positive psychology can enable flourishing in at-risk youth populations

    Star Formation and AGN Activity in Galaxy Clusters from z=12z=1-2: a Multi-wavelength Analysis Featuring HerschelHerschel/PACS

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    We present a detailed, multi-wavelength study of star formation (SF) and AGN activity in 11 near-infrared (IR) selected, spectroscopically confirmed, massive (1014M\gtrsim10^{14}\,\rm{M_{\odot}}) galaxy clusters at 1<z<1.751<z<1.75. Using new, deep HerschelHerschel/PACS imaging, we characterize the optical to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for IR-luminous cluster galaxies, finding that they can, on average, be well described by field galaxy templates. Identification and decomposition of AGN through SED fittings allows us to include the contribution to cluster SF from AGN host galaxies. We quantify the star-forming fraction, dust-obscured SF rates (SFRs), and specific-SFRs for cluster galaxies as a function of cluster-centric radius and redshift. In good agreement with previous studies, we find that SF in cluster galaxies at z1.4z\gtrsim1.4 is largely consistent with field galaxies at similar epochs, indicating an era before significant quenching in the cluster cores (r<0.5r<0.5\,Mpc). This is followed by a transition to lower SF activity as environmental quenching dominates by z1z\sim1. Enhanced SFRs are found in lower mass (10.1<logM/M<10.810.1< \log \rm{M_{\star}}/\rm{M_{\odot}}<10.8) cluster galaxies. We find significant variation in SF from cluster-to-cluster within our uniformly selected sample, indicating that caution should be taken when evaluating individual clusters. We examine AGN in clusters from z=0.52z=0.5-2, finding an excess AGN fraction at z1z\gtrsim1, suggesting environmental triggering of AGN during this epoch. We argue that our results - a transition from field-like to quenched SF, enhanced SF in lower mass galaxies in the cluster cores, and excess AGN - are consistent with a co-evolution between SF and AGN in clusters and an increased merger rate in massive haloes at high redshift.Comment: 26 pages, 14 figures, 6 tables with appendix, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    The ongoing impact of colonisation on childhood obesity prevention : a First Nations’ perspective

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    As researchers (HS, HB, AC) whose work focuses on ensuring that the voices of those most affected by the research are central to co-designed solutions, we are in the privileged position of capturing the stories of lived experience behind the data. In this perspective, a story of lived experience illustrates the need to reframe the childhood obesity prevention narrative towards a more equitable approach that ensures strategies reach the most socially disadvantaged populations. Here we come together to share Louisa Whettam's story, which captures common themes depicting drivers of disparities in obesity prevalence among First Peoples of Australia. We thank Louisa for sharing her personal story in this perspective piece as part of highlighting First Nations’ perspective in relation to the ongoing impact of colonisation on childhood obesity prevention

    Learning sources of variability from high-dimensional observational studies

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    Causal inference studies whether the presence of a variable influences an observed outcome. As measured by quantities such as the "average treatment effect," this paradigm is employed across numerous biological fields, from vaccine and drug development to policy interventions. Unfortunately, the majority of these methods are often limited to univariate outcomes. Our work generalizes causal estimands to outcomes with any number of dimensions or any measurable space, and formulates traditional causal estimands for nominal variables as causal discrepancy tests. We propose a simple technique for adjusting universally consistent conditional independence tests and prove that these tests are universally consistent causal discrepancy tests. Numerical experiments illustrate that our method, Causal CDcorr, leads to improvements in both finite sample validity and power when compared to existing strategies. Our methods are all open source and available at github.com/ebridge2/cdcorr

    Nurturing children's development through healthy eating and active living: Time for policies to support effective interventions in the context of responsive emotional support and early learning

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    Fostering the growth, development, health, and wellbeing of children is a global priority. The early childhood period presents a critical window to influence lifelong trajectories, however urgent multisectoral action is needed to ensure that families are adequately supported to nurture their children's growth and development. With a shared vision to give every child the best start in life, thus helping them reach their full developmental potential, we have formed the International Healthy Eating Active Living Matters (HEALing Matters) Alliance. Together, we form a global network of academics and practitioners working across child health and development, and who are dedicated to improving health equity for children and their families. Our goal is to ensure that all families are free from structural inequality and oppression and are empowered to nurture their children's growth and development through healthy eating and physical activity within the context of responsive emotional support, safety and security, and opportunities for early learning. To date, there have been disparate approaches to promoting these objectives across the health, community service, and education sectors. The crucial importance of our collective work is to bring these priorities for early childhood together through multisectoral interventions, and in so doing tackle head on siloed approaches. In this Policy paper, we draw upon extensive research and call for collective action to promote equity and foster positive developmental trajectories for all children. We call for the delivery of evidence-based programs, policies, and services that are co-designed to meet the needs of all children and families and address structural and systemic inequalities. Moving beyond the “what” is needed to foster the best start to life for all children, we provide recommendations of “how” we can do this. Such collective impact will facilitate intergenerational progression that builds human capital in future generations. © 2022 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
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