124 research outputs found

    Субъективное благополучие студентов психолого-педагогических направлений в период эпидемии COVID-19

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    Introduction. With the development of humanistic attitudes in society, the importance of issues related to the subjective well-being of the individual increases. It is important not only how successful a person is at work or in educational activities, but also how well he/she feels. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly changed the learning environment for university students. The study of the factors of subjective well-being of students expands the instrumental capabilities of psychological support during the pandemic. In the case of a repetition of a similar situation, this knowledge will be useful for helping students, and potentially a wider circle of people, to maintain subjective well-being. Aim. The present research aimed to investigate the subjective well-being of students of psychological and pedagogical directions of universities during the pandemic with an emphasis on its emotional component. Methodology and research methods. The research methodology is based on the subjective approach, which considers a student as an active subject, capable of successfully adapting to the changed conditions of an educational activity. In the course of the research, the authors identified the interrelationships of subjective well-being, its semantic markers and self-organisation to expand the possibilities of diagnosing subjective well-being and maintaining it during the periods of extreme social situations, as well as to use semantic markers for self-analysis. To assess subjective well-being, three methods were applied. Self-assessment of satisfaction with one's condition on a 10-point scale was carried out according to the following parameters: sleep, food, communication with family, communication with friends, studies, hobbies, and mood. The authors employed the scale of subjective well-being (by А. Perrudet-Badoux, G. Mendelsohn, J. Chiche, adapted by M. V. Sokolova) and psychosemantic characteristics of the subjective attitude to the situation of distance learning at the university due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the ability of students to organise themselves in the changed learning conditions, the questionnaire of self-organisation of activities (N. T. Feather и M. J. Bond, adapted by E. Yu. Mandrikova) was used. The study involved 406 students between the ages of 18 and 45 years (383 women and 23 men) studying in the areas of psychology and pedagogy at the University of Tyumen and State Kurgan State University. For statistical analysis of the research data, the Mann-Whitney U Test and correlation analysis were used. Results. It was found that the ability to self-organise leads to higher subjective well-being, and this, in turn, stimulates self-organisation. Semantic markers of subjective well-being associated with educational activities during the pandemic, such as comfortable and uncomfortable, interesting and uninteresting, tired and vigorous, were highlighted. The authors revealed objective parameters associated with self-organisation and subjective well-being, namely sleep disturbances. This can lead to the fact that there is not enough daytime and the student works at night, thereby resulting in the disturbance of night sleep, and consequently - poor self-organisation. Scientific novelty._The parameters of subjective well-being and self-organisation of students in a new, extreme social situation, during the COVID-19 pandemic are considered. Practical significance._The data obtained can be used to develop a strategy for teaching students in a pandemic situation and forced self-isolation, as well as to increase subjective well-being in a new social situation. The research results can be applied in psychodiagnostics for a more complete interpretation of the parameters of subjective well-being, as well as for the use of the identified relationships in the programmes of psychological support for students of psychological and pedagogical specialities. Semantic markers of subjective well-being that have received empirical justification can be employed to create a diagnostic scale. © 2021 Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University. All rights reserved.Acknowledgements. The research was funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) and Tyumen Region within the research project № 20-413-720004

    Alembic Connection Мodernization on the Railway Section in the Conditions of Refusal of Use Cables with Copper Cores

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    На участках, оборудованных автоблокировкой, диспетчерской централизацией и на всех электрифицированных участках железных дорог должна быть перегонная связь. Отказ от медножильных кабелей на магистральных линиях связи при новом строительстве и переход на волоконно-оптические кабели потребовал поиска альтернативных решений в организации перегонной связи. На железных дорогах РФ успешно начато применение современных технологий для организации перегонной связи. В данной работе сделана попытка систематизировать знания о современных вариантах организации перегонной связи с точки зрения выбора наиболее подходящей к конкретным условиям технологии. Особое внимание уделено особенностям организации и проектирования перегонной связи на протяженных участках.There should be a stage connection on sections, equipped with auto-locking, dispatching centralization, and on all electrified sections of railways. The abandonment of copper-core cables on the main communication lines during new construction and the transition to fibre-optic cables required the search for alternative solutions in the organization of distillation communication. The use of modern technologies for the organization of the distillation connection has been successfully launched on the railways of the Russian Federation. In this paper, an attempt is made to systematise knowledge about modern variants of the organization of distillation communication, from the point of view of choosing the most suitable technology for specific conditions. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the organization and design of the distillation connection on extended sections

    Cytokines and HIF-1α as dysregulation factors of migration and differentiation of monocyte progenitor cells of endotheliocytes in the pathogenesis of ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    Background. Angiogenic endothelial dysfunction and progenitor endothelial cells (EPCs) in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) have not been studied enough.The aim. To establish the nature of changes in the cytokine profile and HIF-1α in blood and bone marrow associated with impaired differentiation of monocytic progenitor cells of endotheliocytes (CD14+VEGFR2+) in the bone marrow and their migration into the blood in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), suffering and not suffering from ICMP.Materials and methods. A single-stage, single-centre, observational case-control study was conducted involving 74 patients with CHD, suffering and not suffering from ICMP (30 and 44 people, respectively), and 25 healthy donors. In patients with CHD, bone marrow was obtained during coronary bypass surgery, peripheral blood – before surgery. Healthy donors were taken peripheral blood. The number of CD14+VEGFR2+ in bone marrow and blood was determined by flow cytometry; the concentration of IL-6, TNF-α, M-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and HIF-1α – by the method of enzyme immunoassay.Results. A high content of CD14+VEGFR2+ cells in the blood of patients with CHD without cardiomyopathy was established relative to patients with ICMP against the background of a comparable number of these cells in myeloid tissue. Regardless of the presence of ICMP in the blood, patients with CHD showed an excess of TNF-α, a normal concentration of IL-6, GM-CSF, HIF-1α and a deficiency of M-CSF, and in the bone marrow supernatant, the concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α exceeded that in the blood plasma (the level of GM-CSF – only in patients without cardiomyopathy). With ICMP, the normal concentration of MCP-1 was determined in the blood plasma, and with CHD without cardiomyopathy, its elevated content was determined.Conclusion. The formation of ICMP is accompanied by insufficient activation of EPCs migration with the CD14+VEGFR2+ phenotype in blood without disruption of their differentiation in the bone marrow, which associated with the absence of an increase in the concentration of MCP-1 in blood plasma and not associated with the plasma content of M-CSF, GM-CSF, HIF-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α

    Organizational-administrative Features of the Implementation of Educational Services in the Two-level System of Training of Highly Qualified Personnel

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    It is education - the system of formation of the nation's intellectual capital and as one of the main areas of production innovation - creating the basic conditions for intensive growth of the markets on the basis of rapid updating of technologies and products. Education acts as the first link "education - research - innovation development of mass" of the innovation cycle. This educational sphere acts not only as a necessary element of reproduction of intellectual capital, but also as a dominant element of economic growth, which determines the stability of the external and internal competitive advantages of national economic systems. From the power of the national economy play an individual and a public intellectual capital, which implements the level of economic thinking of the nation, it is largely determined by economic strength, well-being, and the choice of its strategy and the subsequent trajectory of development in a global world order. In this connection, the Russian education there are urgent tasks related to the need to comply with the transformation of the education sector changes. Keywords: economic growth, educational service, training, educational organization JEL Classifications: G20, L00, O4

    Production of angiogenesis mediators and the structure of the vascular wall in the heart in ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    Background. In the pathogenesis of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP), angiopoiesis remains unexplored.The aim. To describe the vasculature of the heart and the imbalance of angiogenesis mediators in the coronary circulation in association with the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and desquamated endothelial cells (DEC) in the blood of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), suffering and not suffering from ICMP.Methods. Fifty-two patients with CHD (30  patients with ICMP, 22  patients without  ICMP), 15  healthy donors were examined. The content of EPC (CD14+CD34+VEGFR2+) in the blood from the cubital vein and DEC (CD45–CD146+) in the blood from the coronary sinus and the cubital vein was determined by flow cytometry. The concentrations of VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), and SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) in blood plasma were recorded using immunofluorescence assay; the angiopoietin-2, MMP-9 (matrix metallopeptidase 9) were recorded using enzyme immunoassay. In myocardial biopsies the specific area of vessels and the expression of αSMA (smooth muscle alpha-actin) were determined by morphometric and immunohistochemical methods.Results. In the peripheral blood of patients with CHD, regardless of the presence of ICMP, the DEC content exceeded the physiological level, and the VEGF-A, PDGF, angiopoietin-2, and MMP-9 corresponded to the norm. In CHD patients without cardiomyopathy, there was an excess of SDF-1 and EPC in the blood from the cubital vein, and in ICMP, their physiological significance was noted. In the coronary blood flow in patients with CHD without cardiomyopathy, an increase in the concentration of PDGF was found, which was not determined in patients with ICMP, who had an increased content of DEC, angiopoietin-2 and MMP-9. The specific area of the vessels in the patients of the two groups was comparable; the expression of αSMA in ICMP was 6.2 times lower than in patients with CHD without cardiomyopathy.Conclusion. The development of ICMP is accompanied by impaired maturation of vessels in the myocardium, associated with the absence of a compensatory reaction of activation of cellular and humoral factors of angiogenesis

    Expression of CD80 and HLA-DR molecules on blood monocytes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

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    We examined expression pattern of CD80 and HLA-DR pro-inflammatory molecules on the monocytes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), depending on the clinical form of the disease and susceptibility of the pathogen to anti-tuberculosis drugs. The study involved forty-five patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (25 men and 20 women aged 18 to 55 years, average age — 44.0±12.4 years). The control group included 15 healthy donors with similar socio-demographic characteristics as in TB patients. Venous blood was used as biomaterial for assays. Studies of the monocyte immunophenotype were carried out by flow cytometry of whole blood cells using Cytoflex flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter, USA) with specific monoclonal antibodies (eBioscience, USA). We determined the content of cells expressing surface markers of monocytes, i.e., CD14, CD45, CD80, and HLA-DR. The results of this study were evaluated using SPSS Statistics 17.0 standard software package and Microsoft Excel. In the course of the study, we have suggested a working hypothesis that the monocytes in TB patients, still being in circulation, can express activation markers during their migration to inflammation focus, especially CD80 and HLA-DR molecules. Analysis of the total CD14+ monocyte number showed its decrease in all forms and variants of clinical course of pulmonary tuberculosis compared with the control group. Assessment of pro-inflammatory markers expressed on CD14 positive monocytes, i.e., HLA-DR activation marker and CD80 co-stimulatory molecule, showed that the number of monocytes with HLA-DR expression in all TB patients was higher than in healthy donors. HLA- DR expression on CD14+ monocytes in the group of patients with infiltrative TB proved to be 15% higher than in patients with disseminated TB. The expression of CD80 on CD14+ monocytes in TB patients showed no differences between the groups and varied within the normal range. Hence, an imbalance within monocyte population in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, regardless of its clinical form and drug sensitivity of the pathogen is developed, due to decrease in total number of CD14+ cells, along with increased relative number of monocytes expressing HLA-DR activation marker (pro-inflammatory phenotype). Meanwhile, expression of the CD80 co-stimulatory molecule on monocytes was within normal values

    Interleukins 4 and 6 as factors of modulation of subpopulation composition of blood monocytes in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    Aim. To evaluate the ratio of the fractions of classical, intermediate, non-classical and transitional monocytes in correlation with the concentration of interleukins 4 and 6 in the blood of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods. 18 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (17 men and 1 woman) aged 47-66 years with circulatory insufficiency of functional class II-III according to the classification of heart failure of the New York Heart Association, were examined. The control group included 14 healthy donors matched by gender and age to patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy without any diseases of cardiovascular system and other systems in an exacerbation stage. In blood of the patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the relative content of classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), non-classical (CD14+CD16+) and transitional (CD14+CD16-) monocytes was assessed by flow cytometry and the concentration of interleukins 4 and 6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. It was shown that the number of non-classical monocytes in the blood of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy was 2 times lower than normal (5.05 % [4.08; 6.58] and 10.07 % [9.34; 13.84], respectively, p < 0.01), as well as the concentration of interleukin-4 (0.02 pg/ml [0; 0.04] and 0.15 pg/ml [0.05; 0.65], respectively, p < 0.05). The number of classical monocytes in the blood of patients had a tendency to decrease, and the proportion of intermediate monocytes and the concentration of interleukin-6, on the contrary, were slightly higher than in healthy individuals, and were interdependent (r = 0.61; p < 0.05). The relative content of transitional monocytes in the blood was comparable with that of healthy donors. Conclusions. The subpopulation composition of blood monocytes in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy is characterized by a deficiency of the fraction of non-classical monocytes with protective properties against endothelium, and interleukin-4 in the blood with a certain increase in the content of interleukin-6 and the number of intermediate cells with ability to cooperate with T-lymphocytes, which predisposes to diffuse atheromatosis of small coronary arteries and diffuse hypoxic myocardial damage in ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Дифференциация и субпопуляционный состав VEGFR2+ моноцитов крови и костного мозга при ишемической кардиомиопатии

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    Aim. To identify disturbances of differentiation and subpopulation composition of VEGFR2+ cells in the blood and bone marrow associated with the features of the cytokine profile in the blood and bone marrow in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).Materials and methods. The study included 74 patients with СAD with and without ICM (30 and 44 people, respectively) and 18 healthy donors. In all patients with СAD, peripheral blood sampling was performed immediately before coronary artery bypass grafting, and bone marrow samples were taken during the surgery via a sternal incision. In the healthy donors, only peripheral blood sampling was performed. In the bone marrow and blood samples, the number of VEGFR2+ cells (CD14+VEGFR2+ cells) and their immunophenotypes CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+, CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+, and CD14+CD16-VEGFR2+ was determined by flow cytometry. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the levels of VЕGF-А, TNFα, M-CSF, and IL-13, as well as the content of MCP-1 (only in the blood) and the M-CSF / IL-13 ratio (only in the bone marrow) were determined.Results. The content of CD14+VEGFR2+ cells in the blood of CAD patients with and without ICM was higher than normal values due to the greater number of CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+, and CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+. In the bone marrow of the patients with ICM, the content of CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+, and CD14+CD16-VEGFR2+ was lower than in patients with CAD without ICM, and the number of CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+ cells corresponded to that in the controls. Regardless of the presence of ICM in CAD, a high concentration of TNFα and normal levels of VEGF-A and IL-13 were observed in the blood. In CAD without ICM, an excess of MCP-1 and deficiency of M-CSF were revealed in the blood. In the bone marrow, the levels of VEGF-A, TNFα, M-CSF, and IL-13 were comparable between the groups of patients against the background of a decrease in the M-CSF / IL-13 ratio in the patients with ICM.Conclusion. Unlike CAD without cardiomyopathy, in ICM, no excess of VEGFR2+ cells and MCP-1 in the blood is observed, which hinders active migration of CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+ cells from the myeloid tissue, and a decrease in the M-CSF / IL-13 ratio in the bone marrow disrupts differentiation of other forms of VEGFR2+ cells, preventing vascular repair.Цель: установить нарушения дифференцировки и субпопуляционного состава VEGFR2+ моноцитов в крови и костном мозге во взаимосвязи с особенностями цитокинового профиля крови и костного мозга у больных ишемической болезнью сердца (ИБС), страдающих и не страдающих ишемической кардиомиопатией (ИКМП).Материалы и методы. В исследование вошли 74 больных ИБС, страдающих и не страдающих ИКМП (30 и 44 человека соответственно), и 18 здоровых доноров. У всех больных ИБС забор периферической крови производился непосредственно перед операцией коронарного шунтирования, а костного мозга – из разреза грудины во время операции. У здоровых доноров забирали только периферическую кровь.  В костном мозге и крови методом проточной цитофлуориметрии определяли численность VEGFR2+ моноцитов (CD14+VЕGFR2+ клеток) и их иммунофенотипов CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+, CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+, CD14+CD16-VEGFR2+, методом иммуноферментного анализа регистрировали концентрацию VЕGF-А, TNFα, M-CSF, IL-13, а также содержание MCP-1 (только в крови) и соотношение M-CSF/IL-13 (только в костном мозге).Результаты. Содержание CD14+VEGFR2+ клеток в крови у больных ИБС без кардиомиопатии и с ИКМП было выше нормы из-за большей численности CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+ и CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+ форм. В костном мозге у больных ИКМП содержание CD14++CD16-VEGFR2+, CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+ и CD14+CD16-VEGFR2+ форм было ниже, чем у больных ИБС без кардиомиопатии, а количество CD14++CD16+VEGFR2+ клеток соответствовало их числу в группе сравнения. Вне зависимости от наличия ИКМП при ИБС в крови отмечалась высокая концентрация TNFα, нормальный уровень VEGF-А и IL-13; при ИБС без кардиомиопатии – избыток МСР-1 и дефицит M-CSF в крови. В костном мозге концентрация VЕGF-А, TNFα, M-CSF, IL-13 была сопоставимой между группами больных на фоне снижения M-CSF/IL-13 у пациентов с ИКМП.Заключение. В отличие от ИБС без кардиомиопатии при ИКМП не формируется избыток VEGFR2+ моноцитов и МСР-1 в крови, что затрудняет активную миграцию CD14+CD16++VEGFR2+ клеток из миелоидной ткани, а снижение M-CSF/IL-13 в костном мозге нарушает дифференцировку остальных форм VEGFR2+ моноцитов, препятствуя репарации сосудов

    Morphology and Nanomechanics of Sensory Neurons Growth Cones following Peripheral Nerve Injury

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    A prior peripheral nerve injury in vivo, promotes a rapid elongated mode of sensory neurons neurite regrowth in vitro. This in vitro model of conditioned axotomy allows analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to an improved neurite re-growth. Our differential interference contrast microscopy and immunocytochemistry results show that conditioned axotomy, induced by sciatic nerve injury, did not increase somatic size of adult lumbar sensory neurons from mice dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons but promoted the appearance of larger neurites and growth cones. Using atomic force microscopy on live neurons, we investigated whether membrane mechanical properties of growth cones of axotomized neurons were modified following sciatic nerve injury. Our data revealed that neurons having a regenerative growth were characterized by softer growth cones, compared to control neurons. The increase of the growth cone membrane elasticity suggests a modification in the ratio and the inner framework of the main structural proteins
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