2,158 research outputs found

    Charity and Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Public Charities in Arkansas 2006-2010

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    In 2010, public charities in Arkansas had a total economic impact of 13,505,145,972.Arkansasnonprofitorganizationsemployedanestimated93,095individualsin2010,representingnearly7percent(6.813,505,145,972. Arkansas nonprofit organizations employed an estimated 93,095 individuals in 2010, representing nearly 7 percent (6.8%) of the state's available labor force. In addition to these impressive numbers, public charities in the state provide a host of services to Arkansans -- from educational opportunities to health care to housing, shelter, and food.Nonprofit organizations are legal entities formed to provide services and programs. These organizations typically engage in activities without financial profit, although these organizations may retain excess revenue. Nonprofit revenue in excess of cost are untaxed and may be saved for future use. This report describes the Arkansas nonprofit sector in terms of its activities, composition, employment levels, and employee earnings. Upon providing a portrait of nonprofit organizations, the report offers an assessment of the nonprofit sector's economic effect on the state economy.Data for this study are from the Urban Institute's National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS), and are comprised of IRS Form 990 and Form 990-EZ filings for all registered 501(c)(3) public charities in Arkansas with over 25,000 in total revenue per year. Data for calendar years 2006 through 2010 are analyzed for this study; data for 2011 and 2012 are not yet available.In examining only those organizations with more than 25,000inrevenue,thisstudyrepresentsapproximatelyonethirdofallnonprofitsregisteredinArkansasasnodataareavailablefororganizationswithtotalrevenueunder25,000 in revenue, this study represents approximately one-third of all nonprofits registered in Arkansas as no data are available for organizations with total revenue under 25,000 (these organizations are not required to file annual reports to the IRS). These data include information only for public charities, which are guided by 501(c)(3) rules. In doing so, this report excludes information about private foundations, churches, social and fraternal organizations, or other groups considered tax-exempt under other sections of the tax code. Consequently, results presented in this report actually understate the true effects of the nonprofit sector for Arkansas. Therefore, when discussing results about nonprofits in Arkansas, this research is addressing the effect of service provided by public charities onl

    Characterization of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Acceleration for Electric Propulsion with Interferometery

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/90620/1/AIAA-48087-936.pd

    Self-Reported Truck Traffic on the Street of Residence and Symptoms of Asthma and Allergic Disease: A Global Relationship in ISAAC Phase 3

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    BACKGROUND: Associations between traffic pollution on the street of residence and a range of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. METHODS: The third phase of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was carried out in 13- to 14-year-old and 6- to 7-year-old children across the world. A question about frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was included in an additional questionnaire. We investigated the association between self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with logistic regression. Adjustments were made for sex, region of the world, language, gross national income, and 10 other subject-specific covariates. RESULTS: Frequency of truck traffic on the street of residence was positively associated with the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema with an exposure-response relationship. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for "current wheeze" and "almost the whole day" versus "never" truck traffic were 1.35 (1.23-1.49) for 13- to 14-year-olds and 1.35 (1.22-1.48) for 6- to 7-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Higher exposure to self-reported truck traffic on the street of residence is associated with increased reports of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in many locations in the world. These findings require further investigation in view of increasing exposure of the world's children to traffic

    MTBP inhibits the Erk1/2-Elk-1 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the prognosis of HCC patients, especially those with metastasis, remains extremely poor. This is partly due to unclear molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis. Our previous study indicates that MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) suppresses migration and metastasis of HCC cells. However, signaling pathways regulated by MTBP remain unknown. To identify metastasis-associated signaling pathways governed by MTBP, we have performed unbiased luciferase reporter-based signal array analyses and found that MTBP suppresses the activity of the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1, a downstream target of Erk1/2 MAP kinases. MTBP also inhibits phosphorylation of Elk-1 and decreases mRNA expression of Elk-1 target genes. Reduced Elk-1 activity is caused by inhibited nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk) by MTBP and subsequent inhibition of Elk-1 phosphorylation. We also reveal that MTBP inhibits the interaction of p-Erk with importin-7/RanBP7 (IPO7), an importin family member which shuttles p-Erk into the nucleus, by binding to IPO7. Moreover, high levels of MTBP in human HCC tissues are correlated with cytoplasmic localization of p-Erk1/2. Our study suggests that MTBP suppresses metastasis, at least partially, by down-modulating the Erk1/2-Elk-1 signaling pathway, thus identifying a novel regulatory mechanism of HCC metastasis by regulating the subcellular localization of p-Erk

    First in-depth analysis of the novel Th2-type cytokines in salmonid fish reveals distinct patterns of expression and modulation but overlapping bioactivities

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The VHSV-infected samples were generated within the Scottish Government funded research project FC1996 and kindly provided by Marine Scotland staff. Thanks to ELANCO for providing the A. davidanieli (Renogen). FINANCIAL SUPPORT T. W. received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland). MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. Y.J., W.H. and Q.X. were supported financially by the National Scholarship Council of China. Z.Q. was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31302221) and the overseas training plan for young and middle-aged teachers and principals of colleges and universities in Jiangsu Province, China. M.M.C. was funded by an Ángeles Alvariño postdoctoral contract from the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and the Xunta de Galicia. P.D.-R. was funded by a European Commission (EC) Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship (FP7). J.W.H. was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/K009125/1). This work was also supported financially by the EC, under contract Nos. 222719 (LIFECYCLE) and 311993 (TargetFish), and by the European Research Council Starting Grant 2011 (contract No. 280469).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Pheochromocytomatosis associated with a novel TMEM127 mutation

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    Pheochromocytomatosis, a very rare form of pheochromocytoma recurrence, refers to new, multiple, and often small pheochromocytomas growing in and around the surgical resection bed of a previous adrenalectomy for a solitary pheochromocytoma. We here report a case of pheochromocytomatosis in a 70-year-old female. At age 64 years, she was diagnosed with a 6-cm right pheochromocytoma. She underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, during which the tumor capsule was ruptured. At age 67 years, CT of abdomen did not detect recurrence. At age 69 years, she began experiencing episodes of headache and diaphoresis. At age 70 years, biochemical markers of pheochromocytoma became elevated with normal calcitonin level. CT revealed multiple nodules of various sizes in the right adrenal fossa, some of which were positive on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan. She underwent open resection of pheochromocytomatosis. Histological examination confirmed numerous pheochromocytomas ranging 0.1–1.2 cm in size. Next-generation sequencing of a panel of genes found a novel heterozygous germline c.570delC mutation in TMEM127, one of the genes that, if mutated, confers susceptibility to syndromic pheochromocytoma. Molecular analysis showed that the c.570delC mutation is likely pathogenic. Our case highlights the typical presentation of pheochromocytomatosis, a rare complication of adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Previous cases and ours collectively demonstrate that tumor capsule rupture during adrenalectomy is a risk factor for pheochromocytomatosis. We also report a novel TMEM127 mutation in this case
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