5,617 research outputs found

    Local Fire Department Emergency Management Planning Solutions

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    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology is a valuable tool when it comes to asset and emergency management response planning. This paper outlines the procedures involved in using GIS to effectively support the City of Montclair, California‟s incident response procedures by organizing their map resources into formats that are easy to use and easily accessible. GIS tools were be used to create a map book as well as a custom search tool that are user friendly, readily updated, more data rich, and more accurate than the City‟s existing system. This tool gives emergency managers a greater understanding of their surroundings and infrastructure with which to plan their responses

    Beyond Transactional Narratives of Agency: Peer Consultants’ Antiracist Professionalization

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    Social justice movements, especially Black Lives Matter, inspired many writing center administrators to reflect on their commitments to antiracism and engage with antiracist professional development with their staff. However, there is continued need to study the impact antiracist professional development has on writing center consultants’ ability to practice antiracism in sessions. This article presents a predominantly white institution (PWI) writing center’s attempt to do this work, with a particular emphasis on how antiracist professional development complicates portrayals of consultant agency within the writing center. The study analyzes qualitative data collected from consultants’ reflective writing, survey, and interview responses. Results illustrate that, in the context of enacting antiracism in and beyond the writing center, consultants showed messy, partial, and incomplete forms of agency with the professional development curriculum impacting consultants of color and white consultants differently. These findings suggest writing center studies must embrace an understanding of antiracist professional development that is reflective, fragmented, and iterative, and identify more concrete practices of antiracist consulting

    Team strategic philosophy: requiem for the infinite game

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    Deliberate accountability has arrived in the medical arena, producing an age of reward for measured performance, and belief in publicizing metrics to ensure clarity, with winning defined as hitting targets, whereby staff are incentivised by arbitrary objectives. Finite game theory declares that players are known, rules are fixed, and the objective agreed, but infinite game theory asserts that players are both known and unknown, rules are changeable, and the objective is to perpetuate the game; these standards are clearly at odds and risk real world chaos in global universal medical education and clinical outcomes and functioning. Five principles are necessary to lead an infinite game: first, a fair basis, such that sacrifices for its advancement are promoted; second, a trusting blame-free team culture and environment; third, competitors viewed as worthy rivals, rather than adversaries, promoting healthy competition; fourth, existential flexibility when faced with credible evidence; and finally, transformational leadership; including infinite game theory into healthcare planning may be difficult, but the potential rewards are surely worth the existential fight

    Combined analysis of microbial metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing data to assess in situ physiological conditions in the premature infant gut.

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    Microbes alter their transcriptomic profiles in response to the environment. The physiological conditions experienced by a microbial community can thus be inferred using meta-transcriptomic sequencing by comparing transcription levels of specifically chosen genes. However, this analysis requires accurate reference genomes to identify the specific genes from which RNA reads originate. In addition, such an analysis should avoid biases in transcript counts related to differences in organism abundance. In this study we describe an approach to address these difficulties. Sample-specific meta-genomic assembled genomes (MAGs) were used as reference genomes to accurately identify the origin of RNA reads, and transcript ratios of genes with opposite transcription responses were compared to eliminate biases related to differences in organismal abundance, an approach hereafter named the "diametric ratio" method. We used this approach to probe the environmental conditions experienced by Escherichia spp. in the gut of 4 premature infants, 2 of whom developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a severe inflammatory intestinal disease. We analyzed twenty fecal samples taken from four premature infants (4-6 time points from each infant), and found significantly higher diametric ratios of genes associated with low oxygen levels in samples of infants later diagnosed with NEC than in samples without NEC. We also show this method can be used for examining other physiological conditions, such as exposure to nitric oxide and osmotic pressure. These study results should be treated with caution, due to the presence of confounding factors that might also distinguish between NEC and control infants. Nevertheless, together with benchmarking analyses, we show here that the diametric ratio approach can be applied for evaluating the physiological conditions experienced by microbes in situ. Results from similar studies can be further applied for designing diagnostic methods to detect NEC in its early developmental stages

    Wideband Agile Digital Microwave Radiometer

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    The objectives of this work were to take the initial steps needed to develop a field programmable gate array (FPGA)- based wideband digital radiometer backend (>500 MHz bandwidth) that will enable passive microwave observations with minimal performance degradation in a radiofrequency-interference (RFI)-rich environment. As manmade RF emissions increase over time and fill more of the microwave spectrum, microwave radiometer science applications will be increasingly impacted in a negative way, and the current generation of spaceborne microwave radiometers that use broadband analog back ends will become severely compromised or unusable over an increasing fraction of time on orbit. There is a need to develop a digital radiometer back end that, for each observation period, uses digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to identify the maximum amount of RFI-free spectrum across the radiometer band to preserve bandwidth to minimize radiometer noise (which is inversely related to the bandwidth). Ultimately, the objective is to incorporate all processing necessary in the back end to take contaminated input spectra and produce a single output value free of manmade signals to minimize data rates for spaceborne radiometer missions. But, to meet these objectives, several intermediate processing algorithms had to be developed, and their performance characterized relative to typical brightness temperature accuracy re quirements for current and future microwave radiometer missions, including those for measuring salinity, soil moisture, and snow pack

    Distinct Patterns of Default Mode and Executive Control Network Circuitry Contribute to Present and Future Executive Function in Older Adults

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    Executive function (EF) performance in older adults has been linked with functional and structural profiles within the executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), white matter hyperintensities (WMH) burden and levels of Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) pathology. Here, we simultaneously explored the unique contributions of these factors to baseline and longitudinal EF performance in older adults. Thirty-two cognitively normal (CN) older adults underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and annually for three years. Neuroimaging and AD pathology measures were collected at baseline. Separate linear regression models were used to determine which of these variables predicted composite EF scores at baseline and/or average annual change in composite ΔEF scores over the three-year follow-up period. Results demonstrated that low DMN deactivation, high ECN activation and WMH burden were the main predictors of EF scores at baseline. In contrast, poor DMN and ECN WM microstructure and higher AD pathology predicted greater annual decline in EF scores. Subsequent mediation analysis demonstrated that DMN WM microstructure uniquely mediated the relationship between AD pathology and ΔEF. These results suggest that functional activation patterns within the DMN and ECN and WMHs contribute to baseline EF while structural connectivity within these networks impact longitudinal EF performance in older adults

    White Matter Microstructure Contributes to Age-Related Declines in Task-Induced Deactivation of the Default Mode Network

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    Task-induced deactivations within the brain’s default mode network (DMN) are thought to reflect suppression of endogenous thought processes to support exogenous goal-directed task processes. Older adults are known to show reductions in deactivation of the DMN compared to younger adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms contributing to functional dysregulation of the DMN in aging. Here, we explored the relationships between functional modulation of the DMN and age, task performance and white matter (WM) microstructure. Participants were 117 adults ranging from 25 to 83 years old who completed an fMRI task switching paradigm, including easy (single) and difficult (mixed) conditions, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The fMRI results revealed an age by condition interaction (β = −0.13, t = −3.16, p = 0.002) such that increasing age affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = −0.29, t = −3.24 p = 0.002) but not the single condition (p = 0.58). Additionally, there was a WM by condition interaction (β = 0.10, t = 2.33, p = 0.02) such that decreasing WM microstructure affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = 0.30, t = 3.42 p = 0.001) but not the single condition (p = 0.17). Critically, mediation analyses indicated that age-related reductions in WM microstructure accounted for the relationship between age and DMN deactivation in the more difficult mixed condition. These findings suggest that age-related declines in anatomical connectivity between DMN regions contribute to functional dysregulation within the DMN in older adults
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