865 research outputs found

### A Kaluza-Klein Model with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking: Light-Particle Effective Action and its Compactification Scale Dependence

We investigate decoupling of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes in an Abelian Higgs
model with space-time topologies $\mathbb{R}^{3,1} \times S^{1}$ and
$\mathbb{R}^{3,1} \times S^{1}/\mathbb{Z}_{2}$. After integrating out heavy KK
modes we find the effective action for the zero mode fields. We find that in
the $\mathbb{R}^{3,1} \times S^{1}$ topology the heavy modes do not decouple in
the effective action, due to the zero mode of the 5-th component of the 5-d
gauge field $A_{5}$. Because $A_{5}$ is a scalar under 4-d Lorentz
transformations, there is no gauge symmetry protecting it from getting mass and
$A_{5}^{4}$ interaction terms after loop corrections. In addition, after
symmetry breaking, we find new divergences in the $A_{5}$ mass that did not
appear in the symmetric phase. The new divergences are traced back to the
gauge-goldstone mixing that occurs after symmetry breaking. The relevance of
these new divergences to Symanzik's theorem is discussed. In order to get a
more sensible theory we investigate the $S^{1}/\mathbb{Z}_{2}$
compactification. With this kind of compact topology, the $A_{5}$ zero mode
disappears. With no $A_{5}$, there are no new divergences and the heavy modes
decouple. We also discuss the dependence of the couplings and masses on the
compactification scale. We derive a set of RG-like equations for the running of
the effective couplings with respect to the compactification scale. It is found
that magnitudes of both couplings decrease as the scale $M$ increases. The
effective masses are also shown to decrease with increasing compactification
scale. All of this opens up the possibility of placing constraints on the size
of extra dimensions.Comment: 35 pages, 6 figure

### Non-Canonical Scalar Fields and Their Applications in Cosmology and Astrophysics.

In this thesis we will discuss several issues concerning cosmological applications of non-canonical scalar fields, which are generically referred to as k-essence. First, we consider two examples of k-essence. These are the rolling tachyon and static spherically symmetric solutions of non-canonical scalar fields in flat space.
Next, we consider static spherically symmetric solutions of non-canonical scalar fields coupled to gravity as a way to explain dark matter halos as a coherent state of the scalar field. The non-trivial solutions have negative energy density near the origin, though the total energy is positive.
After this we show that, for general scalar fields, stationary configurations are possible for shift symmetric theories only.
The next discussion outlines a general program for reconstructing the action of non-canonical single field inflation models from CMBR power spectrum data.
Finally, we study a novel means of coupling neutrinos to a Lorentz violating k-essence background. We first look into the effect k-essence has on the neutrino dispersion relation, and derive the neutrino velocity in a k-essence background. Next, we look at the effect on neutrino oscillations.Ph.D.PhysicsUniversity of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studieshttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/77882/1/csg_1.pd

### Decoupling of Heavy Kaluza-Klein Modes In Models With Five-Dimensional Scalar Fields

We investigate the decoupling of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes in $\phi^{4}$
theory and scalar QED with space-time topology $\mathbb{R}^{3,1} \times S^{1}$.
We calculate the effective action due to integrating out heavy KK modes. We
construct generalized RGE's for the couplings with respect to the
compactification scale $M$. With the solutions to the RGE's we find the
$M$-scale dependence of the effective theory due to higher dimensional quantum
effects. We find that the heavy modes decouple in $\phi^{4}$ theory, but do not
decouple in scalar QED. This is due to the zero mode of the 5-th component
$A_{5}$ of the 5-d gauge field. Because $A_{5}$ is a scalar under 4-d Lorentz
transformations, there is no gauge symmetry protecting it from getting mass and
$A_{5}^{4}$ interaction terms after loop corrections. In light of these
unpleasant features, we explore $S^{1}/\mathbb{Z}_{2}$ compactifications, which
eliminate $A_{5}$, allowing for the heavy modes to decouple at low energies. We
also explore the possibility of decoupling by including higher dimensional
operators. It is found that this is possible, but a high degree of fine tuning
is required.Comment: 9 pages, no figures; sign error on equations 20, 36, 37; Added
additional reference

### Reconstructing the primordial power spectrum from the CMB

We propose a straightforward and model independent methodology for
characterizing the sensitivity of CMB and other experiments to wiggles,
irregularities, and features in the primordial power spectrum. Assuming that
the primordial cosmological perturbations are adiabatic, we present a function
space generalization of the usual Fisher matrix formalism, applied to a CMB
experiment resembling Planck with and without ancillary data. This work is
closely related to other work on recovering the inflationary potential and
exploring specific models of non-minimal, or perhaps baroque, primordial power
spectra. The approach adopted here, however, most directly expresses what the
data is really telling us. We explore in detail the structure of the available
information and quantify exactly what features can be reconstructed and at what
statistical significance.Comment: 43 pages Revtex, 23 figure

### Stationary Configurations Imply Shift Symmetry: No Bondi Accretion for Quintessence / k-Essence

In this paper we show that, for general scalar fields, stationary
configurations are possible for shift symmetric theories only. This symmetry
with respect to constant translations in field space should either be manifest
in the original field variables or reveal itself after an appropriate field
redefinition. In particular this result implies that neither k-Essence nor
Quintessence can have exact steady state / Bondi accretion onto Black Holes. We
also discuss the role of field redefinitions in k-Essence theories. Here we
study the transformation properties of observables and other variables in
k-Essence and emphasize which of them are covariant under field redefinitions.
Finally we find that stationary field configurations are necessarily linear in
Killing time, provided that shift symmetry is realized in terms of these field
variables.Comment: 8 page

### Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario

To determine past distribution and relative abundance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE) of Ontario, we reviewed past HPE-wide winter systematic aerial surveys, partial winter systematic surveys, summer photographic surveys, incidental observations of caribou, and other sources of information from the period 1950—2003. We conducted new HPE-wide aerial surveys in February 2003 and 2004 to evaluate current distribution patterns. From this information, we defined 9 core wintering areas in the HPE and differentiated between 3 catego¬ries of relative abundance. Wintering areas for the January—March period have changed relatively little over the past 45 years. Summer distribution of caribou along the Hudson Bay coast apparently shifted or expanded from the area west of the Severn River to the central and eastern portions of the coast since the 1980s, and caribou observations have become much more common in the area east of the Winisk River since 1998. Because major resource development activities in the HPE are proposed and some are imminent, we recommend additional caribou surveys to document current caribou population identity, size, and distribution, and research projects to better define caribou wintering areas, calving areas, and movement patterns in the HPE

### Reconstructing Single Field Inflationary Actions From CMBR Data

This paper describes a general program for deriving the action of single
field inflation models with nonstandard kinetic energy terms using CMBR power
spectrum data. This method assumes that an action depends on a set of
undetermined functions, each of which is a function of either the inflaton wave
function or its time derivative. The scalar, tensor and non-gaussianity of the
curvature perturbation spectrum are used to derive a set of reconstruction
equations whose solution set can specify up to three of the undetermined
functions. The method is then used to find the undetermined functions in
various types of actions assuming power law type scalar and tensor spectra. In
actions that contain only two unknown functions, the third reconstruction
equation implies a consistency relation between the non-gaussianty, sound speed
and slow roll parameters. In particular we focus on reconstructing a
generalized DBI action with an unknown potential and warp factor. We find that
for realistic scalar and tensor spectra, the reconstructed warp factor and
potential are very similar to the theoretically derived result. Furthermore,
physical consistency of the reconstructed warp factor and potential imposes
strict constraints on the scalar and tensor spectral indices.Comment: 33 pages, 3 figures: v3 - References adde

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