1,109 research outputs found

    An error bound analysis for M-DPSK in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel with diversity reception

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    Error performance of circular 16-DAPSK in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels with diversity reception

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    Salt content of instant noodles in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

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    Objective To determine the salt content in instant noodles sold in Malaysia. Study design A cross-sectional survey was done involving 707 different flavours and packaging of instant noodles sold in six hypermarkets and retailer chains in Malaysia and the corresponding brand's official websites in 2017. Methods The salt content (gram per serving and per 100 g) was collected from the product packaging and corresponding brand's official website. Results Of the 707 different packaging and flavours of instant noodles, only 62.1% (n=439) provided the salt content in their food label. The mean (±SD) salt per 100 g of instant noodles was 4.3±1.5 g and is nearly four times higher than the salt content of food classified in Malaysia as a high salt content (>1.2 g salt per 100 g). The salt content for instant noodle per packaging ranged from 0.7 to 8.5 g. 61.7% of the instant noodles exceeded the Pacific Salt Reduction Target, 11.8% exceeded the WHO recommended daily salt intake of <5.0 per day and 5.50% exceeded Malaysia Salt Action Target. 98% of instant noodles will be considered as high salt food according to the Malaysia Guidelines. The probability of the instant noodles without mixed flavour (n=324) exceeding the Pacific Salt Reduction Target was tested on univariate and multivariate analysis. Instant noodles with soup, Tom Yam flavour, pork flavour and other flavours were found to be predictors of instant noodles with the tendency to exceed Pacific Salt Reduction Target when compared with instant noodles without mixed flavours (p<0.05). Conclusion Only 62% of instant noodles displayed the salt content on their food label. Salt content in instant noodles is very high, with 90% exceeding the daily salt intake recommended by WHO. Prompt action from regulatory and health authorities is needed to reduce the salt content in instant noodles. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ

    Graphene-deposited photonic crystal fibers for continuous refractive index sensing applications

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    © 2015 Optical Society of America. We present a pilot demonstration of an optical fiber based refractive index (RI) sensor involving the deposition of graphene onto the surface of a segment of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The fabrication process is relatively simple and only involves the fusion splicing of a PCF between two single mode fibers. The deposition process relies only on the cold transfer of graphene onto the PCF segment, without the need for further physical or chemical treatment. The graphene overlay modified the sensing scheme of the MZI RI sensor, allowing the sensor to overcome limitations to its detectable RI range due to free spectral range issues. This modification also allows for continuous measurements to be obtained without the need for reference values for the range of RIs studied and brings to light the potential for simultaneous dual parameter sensing. The sensor was able to achieve a RI sensitivity of 9.4 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.33-1.38 and a sensitivity of 17.5 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.38-1.43. It also displayed good repeatability and the results obtained were consistent with the modeling

    Role of Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Measurement in Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Among Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has demonstrated beneficial effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In cross-sectional studies, an association of raised circulating FGF21 levels with coronary heart disease (CHD) was found in some but not all studies. Here we investigated prospectively whether baseline serum FGF21 levels could predict incident CHD in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and no known cardiovascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline serum FGF21 levels were measured in 3528 Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus recruited from the Hong Kong West Diabetes Registry. The role of baseline serum FGF21 levels in predicting incident CHD over a median follow-up of 3.8 years was analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Among 3528 recruited subjects without known cardiovascular diseases, 147 (4.2%) developed CHD over a mean follow-up of 4 years. Baseline serum log-transformed FGF21 levels were significantly higher in those who had incident CHD than those who did not (222.7 pg/mL [92.8-438.4] versus 151.1 pg/mL [75.6-274.6]; P<0.001). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, baseline serum FGF21 levels, using an optimal cutoff of 206.22 pg/mL derived from our study, independently predicted incident CHD (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.10-2.19; P=0.013) and significantly improved net reclassification index and integrated discrimination improvement after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated, for the first time, that serum FGF21 level is an independent predictor of incident CHD and might be usefully utilized as a biomarker for identifying type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with raised CHD risk, for primary prevention.published_or_final_versio

    Plasma fibrinogen level as a predictor of incident metabolic syndrome in a community-based prospective study in Hong Kong Chinese

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises a constellation of metabolic abnormalities associated with a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Central obesity, with related insulin resistance and inflammation are considered the core of the underlying pathogenesis of MS. Fibrinogen, an acute-phase reactant in the coagulation cascade, has been shown to play pivotal role in determining the extent of local or systemic inflammation. In this study, we examined whether plasma fibrinogen was predictive of incident MS in a community-based Chinese cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factors Prevalence Study (CRISPS) cohort. 2780 subjects were recruited in 1995-6 with baseline assessment performed. 1416 subjects without MS at …postprin

    Continuous refractive index sensing based on carbon-nanotube-deposited photonic crystal fibers

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    We present a carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited photonic crystal fiber (PCF) featuring a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration for refractive index (RI) sensing applications. The high RI of the CNTs deposited on the surface of the PCF not only enhances the interaction of the evanescent waves of the cladding modes with the ambient environment around the fiber, but also modifies the sensing scheme to that of intensity variations. Such a modification makes the sensor susceptible to power fluctuations from the optical source but allows the sensor to gain immunity to free spectral range limitations which is commonly found in PCF-based sensors. As such continuous and repeatable measurements can be obtained for the range of RIs being measured. The sensor registered a sensitivity of 19.4 dB/RIU within the RI range of 1.33 to 1.38 and a sensitivity of 24.2 dB/RIU within the RI range of 1.38 to 1.42. Since there is no mechanical modification of the overall structure of the sensing element, the fiber retains its mechanical strength which makes it viable for practical applications. The experimental results are found to be consistent with the modeling of the sensor's behavior. © 2014 Elsevier B.V

    Carbon-nanotube-deposited long period fiber grating for continuous refractive index sensor applications

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    We present a carbon-nanotube-deposited long period fiber grating for refractive index sensing applications in liquid. Carbon nanotubes are deposited around the surface of a long period fiber grating to form the refractive index sensing element. The sensing mechanism relies mainly on the high refractive index properties of the carbon-nanotube thin film, which enhances the cladding mode of the long period fiber grating in order to have a significant interaction between the propagating light and the target medium. A sensitivity of 31 dB/RIU and 47 dB/RIU are obtained for the refractive index ranges of 1.33-1.38 and 1.38-1.42, respectively, which have not been demonstrated with normal long period fiber gratings as the sensing element. As the sensing mechanism is based on the change of the transmitted optical power, our proposed scheme can intrinsically solve the limitations of the free spectral range commonly seen in other reported schemes, and continuous and repeatable measurements can be obtained while only acquiring errors mainly from the power fluctuations from the light source. The fiber grating also does not require any further mechanical modification like etching or tapering, which allows the sensing element to have the advantage of mechanical strength for practical applications. The experimental results are consistent with the modeling of the sensing mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Genetics of Apparently Sporadic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma in a Chinese Population

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    © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.Identification of germline mutation in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is crucial. Clinical indicators, which include young age, bilateral or multifocal, extra-adrenal, malignant, or recurrent tumors, predict the likelihood of harboring germline mutation in Caucasian subjects. However, data on the prevalence of germline mutation, as well as the applicability of these clinical indicators in Chinese, are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a single endocrine tertiary referral center in Hong Kong. Subjects with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas were evaluated for the presence of germline mutations involving 10 susceptibility genes, which included NF1, RET, VHL, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM 127, MAX, and FH genes. Clinical indicators were assessed for their association with the presence of germline mutations. Germline mutations, 2 being novel, were found in 24.4% of the 41 Chinese subjects recruited and 11.4% among those with apparently sporadic presentation. The increasing number of the afore-mentioned clinical indicators significantly correlated with the likelihood of harboring germline mutation in one of the 10 susceptibility genes. (r=0.757, p=0.026). The presence of 2 or more clinical indicators should prompt genetic testing for germline mutations in Chinese subjects. In conclusion, our study confirmed that a significant proportion of Chinese subjects with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma harbored germline mutations and these clinical indicators identified from Caucasians series were also applicable in Chinese subjects. This information will be of clinical relevance in the design of appropriate genetic screening strategies in Chinese populations.postprin
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