7,435 research outputs found

    Berry's phase and the anomalous velocity of Bloch wavepackets

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    The semiclassical equations of motion for a Bloch electron include an anomalous velocity term analogous to a kk-space "Lorentz force", with the Berry connection playing the role of a vector potential. By examining the adiabatic evolution of Bloch states in a monotonically-increasing vector potential, I show that the anomalous velocity can be explained as the difference in the Berry's phase acquired by adjacent Bloch states within a wavepacket.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figur

    Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface

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    We describe the mechanism by which a metamaterial surface can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. With equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side of the surface, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams, while keeping the polarization exactly linear. The explanation is based on coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels. The polarization-rotating behavior occurs at a critical point of the coupled-mode theory, which can be associated with the exceptional point of a parity-time (PT) symmetric effective Hamiltonian

    Dark-State Polaritons in Single- and Double-Λ\Lambda Media

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    We derive the properties of polaritons in single-Λ\Lambda and double-Λ\Lambda media using a microscopic equation-of-motion technique. In each case, the polaritonic dispersion relation and composition arise from a matrix eigenvalue problem for arbitrary control field strengths. We show that the double-Λ\Lambda medium can be used to up- or down-convert single photons while preserving quantum coherence. The existence of a dark-state polariton protects this single-photon four-wave mixing effect against incoherent decay of the excited atomic states. The efficiency of this conversion is limited mainly by the sample size and the lifetime of the metastable state.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figure

    Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians Generating Waveguide Mode Evolution

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    We study the properties of Hamiltonians defined as the generators of transfer matrices in quasi- one-dimensional waveguides. For single- or multi-mode waveguides obeying flux conservation and time-reversal invariance, the Hamiltonians defined in this way are non-Hermitian, but satisfy symmetry properties that have previously been identified in the literature as "pseudo Hermiticity" and "anti-PT symmetry". We show how simple one-channel and two-channel models exhibit transitions between real, imaginary, and complex eigenvalue pairs.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figure

    Optical Resonator Analog of a Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator

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    A lattice of optical ring resonators can exhibit a topological insulator phase, with the role of spin played by the direction of propagation of light within each ring. Unlike the system studied by Hafezi et al., topological protection is achieved without fine-tuning the inter-resonator couplings, which are given the same periodicity as the underlying lattice. The topological insulator phase occurs for strong couplings, when the tight-binding method is inapplicable. Using the transfer matrix method, we derive the bandstructure and phase diagram, and demonstrate the existence of robust edge states. When gain and loss are introduced, the system functions as a diode for coupled resonator modes.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figure

    Hidden Black: Coherent Enhancement of Absorption in Strongly-scattering Media

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    We show that a weakly absorbing, strongly scattering (white) medium can be made very strongly absorbing at any frequency within its strong-scattering bandwidth by optimizing the input electromagnetic field. For uniform absorption, results from random matrix theory imply that the reflectivity of the medium can be suppressed by a factor ~(l_a/lN^2), where N is the number of incident channels and l,l_a are the elastic and absorption mean free paths respectively. It is thus possible to increase absorption from a few percent to > 99%. For a localized weak absorber buried in a non-absorbing scattering medium, we find a large but bounded enhancement.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Constrained Variation Method in Molecular Quantum Mechanics. Comparison of Different Approaches

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    Constrained variation method in molecular quantum mechanics and results for lithium hydrid

    Directional excitation of graphene surface plasmons

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    We propose a scheme to directionally couple light into graphene plasmons by placing a graphene sheet on a magneto-optical substrate. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface, the graphene plasmon dispersion relation becomes asymmetric in the forward and backward directions. It is possible to achieve unidirectional excitation of graphene plasmons with normally incident illumination by applying a grating to the substrate. The directionality can be actively controlled by electrically gating the graphene, or by varying the magnetic bias. This scheme may have applications in graphene-based opto-electronics and sensing

    The FLAME-slab method for electromagnetic wave scattering in aperiodic slabs

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    The proposed numerical method, "FLAME-slab," solves electromagnetic wave scattering problems for aperiodic slab structures by exploiting short-range regularities in these structures. The computational procedure involves special difference schemes with high accuracy even on coarse grids. These schemes are based on Trefftz approximations, utilizing functions that locally satisfy the governing differential equations, as is done in the Flexible Local Approximation Method (FLAME). Radiation boundary conditions are implemented via Fourier expansions in the air surrounding the slab. When applied to ensembles of slab structures with identical short-range features, such as amorphous or quasicrystalline lattices, the method is significantly more efficient, both in runtime and in memory consumption, than traditional approaches. This efficiency is due to the fact that the Trefftz functions need to be computed only once for the whole ensemble.Comment: Various typos were corrected. Minor inconsistencies throughout the manuscript were fixed. In Section II B. Additional description regarding choice of Trefftz cell, was added. In Section III A. Detailed description about units (used in our calculation) was adde