25 research outputs found

    Case-control approach to identify Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms associated with severe malaria.

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    BACKGROUND: Studies to identify phenotypically-associated polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum 23 Mb genome will require a dense array of marker loci. It was considered promising to undertake initial allelic association studies to prospect for virulence polymorphisms in Thailand, as the low endemicity would allow higher levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) than would exist in more highly endemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assessment of LD was first made with 11 microsatellite loci widely dispersed in the parasite genome, and 16 microsatellite loci covering a approximately 140 kb region of chromosome 2 (an arbitrarily representative non-telomeric part of the genome), in a sample of 100 P. falciparum isolates. The dispersed loci showed minimal LD (Index of Association, I(S) (A) = 0.013, P = 0.10), while those on chromosome 2 showed significant LD values mostly between loci <5 kb apart. A disease association study was then performed comparing parasites in 113 severe malaria cases and 245 mild malaria controls. Genotyping was performed on almost all polymorphisms in the binding domains of three erythrocyte binding antigens (eba175, eba140 and eba181), and repeat sequence polymorphisms approximately 2 kb apart in each of three reticulocyte binding homologues (Rh1, Rh2a/b, and Rh4). Differences between cases and controls were seen for (i) codons 388-90 in eba175, and (ii) a repeat sequence centred on Rh1 codon 667. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Allelic association studies on P. falciparum require dense genotypic markers, even in a population of only moderate endemicity that has more extensive LD than highly endemic populations. Disease-associated polymorphisms in the eba175 and Rh1 genes encode differences in the middle of previously characterised erythrocyte binding domains, marking these for further investigation

    Dengue Infection in Children in Ratchaburi, Thailand: A Cohort Study. II. Clinical Manifestations

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    Dengue infection is one of the most important diseases transmitted to human by mosquito bite. The disease may be mild or severe. This study reveals the occurrence and clinical features of diseases caused by dengue infection in a 3-year follow-up in school-children aged 3–14 years in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand using an active surveillance for the episodes of fever. Children who had fever were laboratory tested for the evidence of dengue infection and recorded for clinical features. It was found that most of dengue infected patients had headache, anorexia, nausea/vomiting, and muscle ache. About half of the patients had clinical symptoms that closely mimic other diseases, especially respiratory tract infection, and were incorrectly diagnosed by pediatricians. Only 11% of the patients had more a severe disease called “dengue hemorrhagic fever.” This severe disease may be predicted by the presence of anorexia, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain after the second day of illness. This study provides better understanding in this disease

    Rational Approach to Identify Plasmodium falciparum Genetic Determinants of Severe Malaria

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    EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Allele frequency-based analyses robustly map sequence sites under balancing selection in a malaria vaccine candidate antigen.

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    The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a leading candidate for a malaria vaccine. Here, within-population analyses of alleles from 50 Thai P. falciparum isolates yield significant evidence for balancing selection on polymorphisms within the disulfide-bonded domains I and III of the surface accessible ectodomain of AMA1, a result very similar to that seen previously in a Nigerian population. Studying the frequency of nucleotide polymorphisms in both populations shows that the between-population component of variance (F(ST)) is significantly lower in domains I and III compared to the intervening domain II and compared to 11 unlinked microsatellite loci. A nucleotide site-by-site analysis shows that sites with exceptionally high or low F(ST) values cluster significantly into serial runs, with four runs of low values in domain I and one in domain III. These runs may map the sequences that are consistently under the strongest balancing selection from naturally acquired immune responses

    Contrasting signatures of selection on the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen gene family.

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    Erythrocyte binding antigens of Plasmodium falciparum are involved in erythrocyte invasion, and may be targets of acquired immunity. Of the five eba genes, protein products have been detected for eba-175, eba-181 and eba-140, but not for psieba-165 or ebl-1, providing opportunity for comparative analysis of genetic variation to identify selection. Region II of each of these genes was sequenced from a cross-sectional sample of parasites in an endemic Kenyan population, and the frequency distributions of polymorphisms analysed. A positive value of Tajima's D was observed for eba-175 (D=1.13) indicating an excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, while all other genes had negative values, the most negative being ebl-1 (D=-2.35) followed by psieba-165 (D=-1.79). The eba-175 and ebl-1 genes were then studied in a sample of parasites from Thailand, for which a positive Tajima's D value was again observed for eba-175 (D=1.79), and a negative value for ebl-1 (D=-1.85). This indicates that eba-175 is under balancing selection in each population, in strong contrast to the other members of the gene family, particularly ebl-1 and psieba-165 that may have been under recent directional selection. Population expansion simulations were performed under a neutral model, further supporting the departures from neutrality of these genes

    Predictive model for bacterial late-onset neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand

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    Background Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is essential to prevent severe complications and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. The mortality of neonatal sepsis is over 18%in many countries. This study aimed to develop a predictive model for the diagnosis of bacterial late-onset neonatal sepsis. Methods A case-control study was conducted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the medical records of 52 sepsis cases and 156 non-sepsis controls. Only proven bacterial neonatal sepsis cases were included in the sepsis group. The non-sepsis group consisted of neonates without any infection. Potential predictors consisted of risk factors, clinical conditions, laboratory data, and treatment modalities. The model was developed based on multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The incidence of late proven neonatal sepsis was 1.46%. The model had 6 significant variables: poor feeding, abnormal heart rate (outside the range 100–180 x/min), abnormal temperature (outside the range 36o-37.9 °C), abnormal oxygen saturation, abnormal leucocytes (according to Manroe’s criteria by age), and abnormal pH (outside the range 7.27–7.45). The area below the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve was 95.5%. The score had a sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 90.4%. Conclusion A predictive model and a scoring system were developed for proven bacterial late-onset neonatal sepsis. This simpler tool is expected to somewhat replace microbiological culture, especially in resource-limited settings

    Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated chromatographically purified Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Thai children

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    Summary: Inactivated mouse-brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine has a worrisome safety profile and the live attenuated vaccine is unsuitable in immunodeficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated chromatographically purified Vero-cell-derived JE vaccine (CVI-JE, Beijing P-3 strain) in children. 152 healthy Thai children, with an average (SD) age of 14.4 (3.8) months, received 3 doses of CVI-JE on days 0, 7–28, and one year. Homologous JE neutralizing antibody titers (NT) were measured. All subjects had seroprotection [geometric mean titer (GMT) 150] 28 days' post 2nd vaccination. The seroprotection rates at 1 year after primary series and and 1 month after the booster were 89.3% (GMT 49) and 100% (GMT 621), respectively. Local and systemic reactions–fever (17.6%), vomiting (8%), and poor appetite (5.3%)–were noted within 28 days' post-vaccination. All these symptoms were self-limited. Conclusions: CVI-JE is safe, immunogenic, and provided high NT

    Physical findings in dengue infection [n/number observed (%)].

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    a<p>significantly less common in UF compared to DF and DHF, but no difference between DF and DHF.</p>b<p>significantly more common in DHF compared to DF and UF, and more common in DF compared to UF.</p
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