13,214 research outputs found

    Two-dimensional quasineutral description of particles and fields above discrete auroral arcs

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    Stationary hot and cool particle distributions in the auroral magnetosphere are modelled using adiabatic assumptions of particle motion in the presence of broad-scale electrostatic potential structure. The study has identified geometrical restrictions on the type of broadscale potential structure which can be supported by a multispecies plasma having specified sources and energies. Without energization of cool thermal ionospheric electrons, a substantial parallel potential drop cannot be supported down to altitudes of 2000 km or less. Observed upward-directed field-aligned currents must be closed by return currents along field lines which support little net potential drop. In such regions the plasma density appears significantly enhanced. Model details agree well with recent broad-scale implications of satellite observations

    On the structures and mapping of auroral electrostatic potentials

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    The mapping of magnetospheric and ionospheric electric fields in a kinetic model of magnetospheric-ionospheric electrodynamic coupling proposed for the aurora is examined. One feature is the generalization of the kinetic current-potential relationship to the return current region (identified as a region where the parallel drop from magnetosphere to ionosphere is positive); such a return current always exists unless the ionosphere is electrically charged to grossly unphysical values. A coherent phenomenological picture of both the low energy return current and the high energy precipitation of an inverted-V is given. The mapping between magnetospheric and ionospheric electric fields is phrased in terms of a Green's function which acts as a filter, emphasizing magnetospheric latitudinal spatial scales of order (when mapped to the ionosphere) 50 to 150 km. This same length, when multiplied by electric fields just above the ionosphere, sets the scale for potential drops between the ionosphere and equatorial magnetosphere

    Quenched chiral logarithms in lattice QCD with exact chiral symmetry

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    We examine quenched chiral logarithms in lattice QCD with overlap Dirac quark. For 100 gauge configurations generated with the Wilson gauge action at β=5.8 \beta = 5.8 on the 83×24 8^3 \times 24 lattice, we compute quenched quark propagators for 12 bare quark masses. The pion decay constant is extracted from the pion propagator, and from which the lattice spacing is determined to be 0.147 fm. The presence of quenched chiral logarithm in the pion mass is confirmed, and its coefficient is determined to be δ=0.203±0.014 \delta = 0.203 \pm 0.014 , in agreement with the theoretical estimate in quenched chiral perturbation theory. Further, we obtain the topological susceptibility of these 100 gauge configurations by measuring the index of the overlap Dirac operator. Using a formula due to exact chiral symmetry, we obtain the η \eta' mass in quenched chiral perturbation theory, mη=(901±64) m_{\eta'} = (901 \pm 64) Mev, and an estimate of δ=0.197±0.027 \delta = 0.197 \pm 0.027 , which is in good agreement with that determined from the pion mass.Comment: 24 pages, 6 EPS figures; v2: some clarifications added, to appear in Physical Review

    Dissociation of mitochondrial depolarization from cytochrome c release during apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy

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    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 induces rapid apoptosis in mouse lymphoma (LY-R) cells, initiating with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. It has been proposed that the opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pores, which results in the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), is essential for the escape of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol as well as for apoptotic cell death. Therefore, we have assessed the correlation between the loss of Δψm and the release of cytochrome c following PDT. Treatment of LY-R cells with 300 nM Pc 4 and 60, 90 or 120 mJ/cm2of red light resulted in apoptosis of 80–90% of the cells, accompanied by >20-fold elevation in caspase-3-like activity within one h. At all 3 doses of PDT employed here, the majority of the cytochrome c was released from mitochondria at 15 min after irradiation, as determined by an immunohistochemical method. In contrast, the loss of Δψm following PDT, as monitored by the uptake of JC-1 or Rh-123, depended on the PDT dose and the post-treatment time. In spite of the release of cytochrome c at 15 min after each of the 3 doses, a corresponding loss of Δψm was observed only for those cells that received the highest dose of PDT. Virtually all cells that received one of the lower doses of PDT (300 nM Pc 4 plus 60 or 90 mJ/cm2) maintained normal Δψm. Hence, our results support the conclusion that the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria resulting from Pc 4-PDT-induced photodamage is independent of the loss of Δψm. Therefore, it is important to consider a range of doses of this or other apoptotic stimuli in deciphering the relationship of metabolic responses that contribute to apoptosis. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.co

    Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium elephantis Strain Lipa.

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    We report the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium elephantis strain Lipa from a sputum sample of a patient with pulmonary disease. This is the first draft genome sequence of M. elephantis, a rapidly growing mycobacterium

    Demonstration of the asymmetric lateral Casimir force between corrugated surfaces in the nonadditive regime

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    The measurement of the lateral Casimir force between two aligned sinusoidally corrugated Au-coated surfaces has been performed in the nonadditive regime. The use of deeper corrugations also allowed to demonstrate an asymmetry in the phase dependences of the lateral Casimir force, as predicted earlier. The measurement data are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact theoretical results computed at T=300 K including effect of real material properties. The deviations between the exact theory and the proximity force approximation are quantified. The obtained results are topical for applications in nanomachines.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Flight Mechanics and Control of Escape Manoeuvres in Hummingbirds. I. Flight Kinematics

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    Hummingbirds are nature’s masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the ‘helicopter model’ that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species
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