13 research outputs found

    The epidemiology and impact of pretreatment HIV drug resistance in adults in South Africa.

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    Doctoral Degrees. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) present prior to initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), is known as pretreatment drug resistance (PDR). Conventionally, PDR is detected by Sanger sequencing. Drug resistant minority variants (DRMVs) that are not reliably detected by Sanger sequencing can be detected by next generation sequencing. The aims of this research were to assess levels of PDR in HIV hyper-endemic areas (with high HIV incidence and prevalence) in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, trends of PDR in South Africa, and the impact of DRMVs on ART. To assess PDR in adults from KZN hyper-endemic areas, 1845 sequences were analyzed from two population-based HIV surveillance studies; a longitudinal HIV surveillance programme in northern KZN (2013-2014), and the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) in central KZN (2014-2015). Overall, 182/1845 (10.0%) had NNRTI-PDR mutations, and when analyzed by study year, NNRTI-PDR was 10.2% (CI:7.5-12.9) for the HIPSS study in 2014. To assess PDR trends in South Africa, 6880 HIV-1 sequences were collated from 38 datasets of ART-naïve adults (2000-2016). Increasing levels of PDR were observed, most marked from 2010. Crude pooled prevalence of NNRTI-PDR reached 10% in 2014, with a 1.18-fold (CI:1.13- 1.23) annual increase (p<0.001), consistent with findings from the HIPSS data. This provided the first evidence of high-level NNRTI-PDR in KZN and South Africa, supporting the transition to dolutegravir in standard first-line ART, as recommended by the World Health Organization when NNRTI-PDR reaches ≥10%. A case-control (2:1) study in HIV/TB co-infected adult patients was done to assess the impact of DRMVs at different thresholds. Cases were patients that initiated ART and had viral loads ≥1000 copies/mL after ≥6 months on ART, and controls were those that initiated ART and achieved virologic suppression through 24 months. Pre-ART NNRTI-resistance was associated with ART failure. NGS improved detection of HIVDR at lower thresholds, but reduced the specificity of identifying patients at risk of virologic failure, with the specificity reducing from 97% (CI:92-99) at 20% threshold, to 79% (CI:71-86) at 2% threshold. In all, the findings presented in this thesis provide a broad message about the need to improve quality in HIV prevention and treatment services

    Impact of pretreatment low-abundance HIV-1 drug-resistant variants on virological failure among HIV-1/TB-co-infected individuals.

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    OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of pretreatment low-abundance HIV-1 drug-resistant variants (LA-DRVs) on virological failure (VF) among HIV-1/TB-co-infected individuals treated with NNRTI first-line ART. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 170 adults with HIV-1/TB co-infection. Cases had at least one viral load (VL) ≥1000 RNA copies/mL after ≥6 months on NNRTI-based ART, and controls had sustained VLs <1000 copies/mL. We sequenced plasma viruses by Sanger and MiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed drug resistance mutations (DRMs) using the Stanford drug resistance database, and analysed NGS data for DRMs at ≥20%, 10%, 5% and 2% thresholds. We assessed the effect of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) on VF. RESULTS: We analysed sequences from 45 cases and 125 controls. Overall prevalence of PDR detected at a ≥20% threshold was 4.7% (8/170) and was higher in cases than in controls (8.9% versus 3.2%), P = 0.210. Participants with PDR at ≥20% had almost 4-fold higher odds of VF (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 0.8-18.3) compared with those without, P = 0.104. PDR prevalence increased to 18.2% (31/170) when LA-DRVs at ≥2% were included. Participants with pretreatment LA-DRVs only had 1.6-fold higher odds of VF (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.6-4.3) compared with those without, P = 0.398. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment DRMs and LA-DRVs increased the odds of developing VF on NNRTI-based ART, although without statistical significance. NGS increased detection of DRMs but provided no additional benefit in identifying participants at risk of VF at lower thresholds. More studies assessing mutation thresholds predictive of VF are required to inform use of NGS in treatment decisions

    Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Child stunting reduces survival and impairs neurodevelopment. We tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) on stunting and anaemia in in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised, community-based, 2 × 2 factorial trial in two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Clusters were defined as the catchment area of between one and four village health workers employed by the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care. Women were eligible for inclusion if they permanently lived in clusters and were confirmed pregnant. Clusters were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to standard of care (52 clusters), IYCF (20 g of a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement per day from age 6 to 18 months plus complementary feeding counselling; 53 clusters), WASH (construction of a ventilated improved pit latrine, provision of two handwashing stations, liquid soap, chlorine, and play space plus hygiene counselling; 53 clusters), or IYCF plus WASH (53 clusters). A constrained randomisation technique was used to achieve balance across the groups for 14 variables related to geography, demography, water access, and community-level sanitation coverage. Masking of participants and fieldworkers was not possible. The primary outcomes were infant length-for-age Z score and haemoglobin concentrations at 18 months of age among children born to mothers who were HIV negative during pregnancy. These outcomes were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. We estimated the effects of the interventions by comparing the two IYCF groups with the two non-IYCF groups and the two WASH groups with the two non-WASH groups, except for outcomes that had an important statistical interaction between the interventions. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01824940. FINDINGS: Between Nov 22, 2012, and March 27, 2015, 5280 pregnant women were enrolled from 211 clusters. 3686 children born to HIV-negative mothers were assessed at age 18 months (884 in the standard of care group from 52 clusters, 893 in the IYCF group from 53 clusters, 918 in the WASH group from 53 clusters, and 991 in the IYCF plus WASH group from 51 clusters). In the IYCF intervention groups, the mean length-for-age Z score was 0·16 (95% CI 0·08-0·23) higher and the mean haemoglobin concentration was 2·03 g/L (1·28-2·79) higher than those in the non-IYCF intervention groups. The IYCF intervention reduced the number of stunted children from 620 (35%) of 1792 to 514 (27%) of 1879, and the number of children with anaemia from 245 (13·9%) of 1759 to 193 (10·5%) of 1845. The WASH intervention had no effect on either primary outcome. Neither intervention reduced the prevalence of diarrhoea at 12 or 18 months. No trial-related serious adverse events, and only three trial-related adverse events, were reported. INTERPRETATION: Household-level elementary WASH interventions implemented in rural areas in low-income countries are unlikely to reduce stunting or anaemia and might not reduce diarrhoea. Implementation of these WASH interventions in combination with IYCF interventions is unlikely to reduce stunting or anaemia more than implementation of IYCF alone. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, Swiss Development Cooperation, UNICEF, and US National Institutes of Health.The SHINE trial is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1021542 and OPP113707); UK Department for International Development; Wellcome Trust, UK (093768/Z/10/Z, 108065/Z/15/Z and 203905/Z/16/Z); Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; US National Institutes of Health (2R01HD060338-06); and UNICEF (PCA-2017-0002)

    Persistent Hepatitis B Viraemia with Polymerase Mutations among HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients on HBV-Active ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    To understand the problem of persistent Hepatitis B virus (HBV) viraemia in HIV/HBV co-infected patients on HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART), we assessed the rate of HBV virological response in patients on HBV-active ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and analysed factors associated with persistent HBV viraemia. One hundred and fifty eligible participants with a chronic HBV diagnosis, with or without HIV coinfection, were enrolled and followed up after 6 months. The HBV pol gene was sequenced by next-generation sequencing and mutations were determined using the Stanford HBVseq database. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with HBV viraemia at 6-month follow-up. The mean duration of HBV-active ART was 24 months. Thirty-seven of one hundred and six (35%) participants receiving HBV-active ART for longer than 6 months had virological failure. Advanced immunosuppression with CD4+ cell counts &lt;200 cells/&mu;L was independently associated with persistent HBV viraemia, aOR 5.276 (95% CI 1.575&ndash;17.670) p = 0.007. A high proportion of patients on HBV-active ART are unsuppressed, which will ultimately have an impact on global elimination goals. Better monitoring should be implemented, especially in HIV-coinfected patients with low CD4+ cell counts and followed by early HBV drug-resistance testing

    HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Natural Polymorphisms of the Integrase Gene in Integrase Inhibitor-Naive Patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.

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    Previously used as part of salvage therapy, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) have become part of the preferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) first-line regimen in most low- to middle-income countries. With the extensive use of dolutegravir in first-line ART, drug resistance mutations to INSTIs are inevitable. Therefore, active monitoring and surveillance of INSTI drug resistance is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of the integrase gene and determine pretreatment INSTI resistance in Harare, Zimbabwe. Forty-four HIV-1 Integrase sequences from 65 were obtained from treatment-naive individuals using a custom genotyping method. Drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Interpretation program. Viral subtyping was done by phylogenetic analysis and the REGA HIV subtyping tool determined recombinants. Natural polymorphisms were evaluated relative to the global subtype B and C consensus sequences. One hundred ninety-two sequences from the region were accessed from GenBank to assess differences between the Zimbabwean sequences and those from neighboring countries. No major INSTI resistance mutations were detected; however, the L74I polymorphism was detected in three sequences of the 44 (6.8%). There was little genetic variability in the Integrase gene, with a mean genetic distance range of 0.053015. The subtype C consensus was identical to the global subtype C consensus and varied from the global subtype B consensus at five major positions: T124A, V201I, T218I, D278A, and S283G. This study has provided baseline sequence data on the presence of HIV-1 subtype C Integrase gene drug resistance mutations from Harare, Zimbabwe