85 research outputs found

    Aircraft cabin air supply and the internal air system

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    This paper describes systems commonly employed to deliver aircraft cabin air, and the internal air system which is responsible for the supply of balancing, sealing and cooling air used with the engine to control the operation of bearings, discs and other critical components, as well as bleed air. A series of mechanisms that could be responsible for contamination of bleed and cabin air are considered including: ingestion into the compressor intake of poor quality air; leakage from a seal of oil; ingestion from the gases associated with a stall or surge event; off-gassing of cabin fittings and emissions from occupants

    Innovation toolkit for identification of the optimal module options in open platform architecture products

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    Open platform architecture products (OPAP) are the key enablers for Product design for Mass Individualisation . It is a new product design paradigm that comprises an open hardware platform , mass - produced by large manufacturers and multiple independent modules , invented and produced by other smaller companies and by the end - user that are integrated with the platform. It gives freedom to end - users to integrate different modules into the platform as per their choice. This type of product integration will be engaged with by the all actors involved in the design and aims to help them to be more creative and innovative. The end product will be highly i ndividualised and technologically advanced. Based on explorative literature analysis, with practical insights from an ind ustrial questionnaire survey, a n Innovation toolkit for the end - user has been developed . The Innovation toolkit provides a mean of sel ecting an optimal module option for each module which will be integrated on the hardware platform. The d esign of the Innovation toolkit for OPAP has been approached in three different s teps: Modelling of OPAP , Modelling of evaluation measures and evaluatio n indices with end - user preferences and Identification of the optimal module options. In this work, variations in module options for a given module are modelled by an AND - OR tree and parameters of the nodes in this tree. Different module options for the se lected module are evaluated by various evaluation measures . These evaluation measures are converted into comparable customer satisfaction indices. The optimal OPAP is identified by constrained optimisation of the overall customer satisfaction index. Two case stud ies ha ve been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced I nnovation toolkit . These case studies illustrate that the I nnovation toolkit can readily be applied to these types of product development to obtain a highly individualise d OPAP with optimised module option

    Identification of optimised open platform architecture products for design for mass individualisation

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    Mass Individualisation is a new product design paradigm that comprises an open-hardware platform and multiple independent modules for end-user’s selection that are integrated with the platform. Open platform architecture products (OPAP) are the key enablers for this paradigm. Based on explorative literature analysis, with practical insights from an industrial questionnaire survey, an Innovation toolkit for the end-user has been developed. This provides a means for selecting an optimal OPAP. The design of the Innovation toolkit has been approached in four different steps: modelling of OPAP Products; modelling of evaluation measures and evaluation indices with end-user preferences; identification of the optimal module options for every configuration and Configuration optimisation. Two case studies have been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and to illustrate that the Innovation toolkit can readily be applied to these types of product development to obtain highly individualised and optimised OPAP

    Contaminated interaction: another barrier to circular material flows

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    Contamination poses a significant problem to the circular economy (CE), which derives much of its value from maintaining pure material flows. The aim of this article is to frame contaminated interaction among other forms of contamination and investigate its effects on the CE. The research is based on a review of the contamination literature and case studies. We differentiate between three types of contamination influencing circular material flows: technical, which deals with fitness for use; systemic, which deals with efficiency in processing; and interaction, which deals with user-object interaction and decision making. Our focus is on developing a foundational understanding of contaminated interaction and how it influences circular processes. Through multiple examples, contaminated interaction is shown to create three barriers to the CE: downcycling, disposal, and hindered circulation. Among other proposals to address contaminated interaction, the research calls for the development of experientially transferrable design—products that can move between users and uses without negative consequences

    Innovation design engineering: non-linear progressive education for diverse intakes

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    This paper discusses the non-linear progressive educational techniques developed and adopted by the Innovation Design Engineering (IDE) masters degree at the Royal College of Art and Imperial College, London. In particular a focus is applied to the development of creative processes for diverse intakes without recourse to overt systems presentation. Innovation design engineering is viewed as a cutting-edge product design, experimentation and enterprise discipline with applicants drawn from three areas including engineering, industrial design and other art, design and business disciplines. The co-education of such a diverse intake requires careful balancing of an academic programme to ensure that all parties are stimulated and enabled to expand their knowledge and skills base while also contributing to a communal environment via team-based activities. Designers work at the centre of complex, demanding projects, juggling creatively in teams, to generate great ideas, designs and successful products. In order to achieve such goals it is critical for students to attain high levels of self reflection, social networking, work-collaboration and interdisciplinarity. This is achieved by surrounding the students with experts and leaders in their fields to support them in their design ventures. Through reflection and theorising, a conceptual base for educating innovative design engineers is explored. One of the techniques described provided evidence to suggest running a design enterprise strand in the programme, a proposal that has now been implemented. Students elect from three learning strands: experimental design; design for manufacture; and design enterprise. The design enterprise strand addresses product, idea and service launching, finance, marketing, commercialisation, designing service support infrastructures and establishing production and supplier relationships. Design for manufacture is the traditional core industrial design activity associated with advanced manufacturing, new markets, user centred design, aesthetics and technology innovation. Experimental design is a research driven rigorous approach to developing fundamental new industrial concepts, paradigms, technologies, designs and insights. The strands reflect the expanding scope of industrial design and hint at the generation of new sub-disciplines
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