27 research outputs found

    The International encyclopedia of language and social interaction

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    Formulation is the interactional practice of referring to objects, persons, activities, or previous conversation. This article presents a brief history of formulation in the field of language and social interaction and outlines current knowledge of the practices of formulation. The article also describes three different senses of formulation that appear in the literature on conversation analysis and the relationship of these to each other

    "I Want This, I Want That": a discursive analysis of mental state terms in family interaction

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    Using the theoretical approach of discursive psychology, this thesis examines the interactive uses of mental state talk, in particular the term want , in everyday family interaction. In mainstream cognitive psychology mental state terms are examined as words which signify internal referents. How individuals come to competently participate in social interaction is formulated as a problem of how individual, isolated minds come to understand the contents of other minds. This thesis challenges these individualistic notions and examines notions of wanting as interactionally managed participants concerns. The data are taken from two sources; a set of video recordings taken from a series of fly-on-the-wall documentary programmes which each focus on a particular family and videotapes of mealtimes recorded by three families. Recordings were initially transcribed verbatim and sections related to the emerging themes within the thesis were subsequently transcribed using the Jefferson notation system. These transcripts were then analysed, alongside repeated viewings of the video recordings. The thesis considers a range of analytic themes, which are interlinked via one of the primary research questions, which has been to examine how, and to what end, speakers routinely deploy notions of wanting in everyday talk-in-interaction. A major theme has been to highlight inherent problems with work in social cognition which uses experimental tasks to examine children s Theory of Mind and understanding of desires . I argue that the assumptions of this work are a gross simplification of the meaning wanting for both children and adults. A further theme has been to examine the sequential organisation of directives and requests in both adults and children s talk. Finally, I examine speakers practices for rejecting a proposal regarding their actions and for denying a formulation of their motivations by a co-interactant. The conclusions of the thesis show that expressions of wanting are practical expressions which work within a flow of interactional and deontic considerations and that making claims regarding one s own or others wants is entirely a social matter. I argue that rather than being examined for what they may reveal about the mind , mental state terms may be fruitfully examined as interactional matters

    Self-disclosure and self-deprecating self-reference: Conversational practices of personalization in police interviews with children reporting alleged sexual offenses

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    This article examines how police officers ostensibly reveal personal information about themselves in investigative interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses. We identify two practices of personalization. First, we show how, during the opening phase of interviews, officers engage in clear, unambiguous self-disclosure and how these self-disclosures are designed to elicit expressions of affiliation from witnesses. Second, we identify instances of self-deprecating self-reference as in ‘I’m going deaf that's all’. These self-references are delivered to manage trouble responsibility in environments of repair. We show how they manage the conflicting demands of rapport building and the requirement to make interviewees feel as if they are being listened to and understood, on the one hand, and the need for effective evidence gathering, on the other. The present study extends understanding of how officers personalize the investigative interview, as recommended by best practice guidelines.N/

    Directing and requesting: two interactive uses of the mental state terms want and need

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    This article is focused on the uses of the terms want and need to build directives and requests in family interaction. The study is located within the theoretical framework of discursive psychology, using the methods of conversation analysis. Within social cognitive research, mental state terms are analyzed as references to inner mental experiences. In contrast, this article analyzes the selection of want and need as sequential phenomena. The use of I want to deliver directives increases the likelihood of compliance when one cannot monitor or control whether a projected action will be carried out. Requests built using I need are recurrently delivered following a request from an interlocutor and delay the granting of the request while maintaining alignment. Thus rather than simply expressing an internal mental experience, the verbs want and need have specific practical uses in their normative sequential environments

    Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses

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    This article analyses how police officers conducting interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions. Interviewing guidelines recommend that this be done during interview closure. The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews. Data are in British English. Using Conversation Analysis, we show that the understanding of interview closure as an appropriate place in which to request for the initiation of a new topic is paradoxical. We also outline practices for soliciting additional information throughout the course of the interview.University of Derb

    Stresses, challenges, and rewards of home-based applied behaviour analysis intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.

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    This study examined the experiences of five parents who had children with autism spectrum disorder, who were receiving applied behaviour analysis-based intervention in their home setting, in order to better understand the rewards and challenges associated with such a program. The limitations and difficulties of home-based programs for children with autism spectrum disorder have been well documented. These include the impact on family wellbeing, difficulties recruiting program tutors, and problems obtaining funding from local education authorities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes emerged: (i) absence of personal space: “one of the most difficult and least exciting things of running a home-program is the fact that it’s your home”; (ii) having personal agency: “the ability to sustain the program and fight the system”; and (iii) feeling empowered: “anyone can learn anything”. Findings highlighted the prevalence of problems caused by “the system”. Difficulties of implementing an intervention within the home and financial strain were additional stressors. It was concluded that challenges with applied behaviour analysis-based intervention are distinct from the intervention itself. Nevertheless, parents felt supported by their intervention teams. The results of this study are discussed in relation to current applied behaviour analysis-based intervention provisions.N/

    Challenges with Quantum Chemistry-Based Screening of Electrochemical Stability of Lithium Battery Electrolytes

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    Challenges with the quantum chemistry based-screening of electrochemical stability of solvents and salts with potential applications in lithium batteries are discussed. Initial high throughput screening of carbonate and phosphate-based electrolyte solvents provided insight into first and second reduction and oxidation potentials and reorganization energies of these solvents. It has been found that it was important to include a lithium cation in the screening of semifluorinated solvents. Two reduction pathways have been found for lithium complexed with semifluorinated solvents and salts such as lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI): the low rate defluorination reaction occurring at high potentials and fast solvent or anion reduction occurring at significantly lower potentials. A spontaneous deprotonation of carbonate solvents at the surface of the completely de-lithiated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode has been found. Introduction Development of novel electrolyte -electrode couples requires knowledge of key electrolyte electrochemical properties such as conductivity, transference number, melting points, flammability, vapor pressure, wettability of separator and electrolyte electrochemical stability window. Electrolytes should be either electrochemically stable at the operating voltage of electrodes or if they reduce or oxidized at the negative or positive electrode, they should form a stable passivation layer as a result of redox reactions, decomposition and precipitation on electrode surfaces. Commonly used carbonate-based solvents typically undergo reduction at the graphite anodes forming a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI).(1-4) If a coherent SEI is not formed, continual electrolyte degradation and/or graphite exfoliation occurs. Because state of the art electrolytes are often multicomponent mixtures, it is important to know not only if each solvent or salt reduces at the electrode but also the order of the reduction stability for each electrolyte component. Knowledge of the preferential, or sacrificial, reduction is expected to provide a better control of the SEI composition and its properties.(5) Intriguingly, in addition to electrolyte reduction at anodes, certain electrolytes may undergo both reduction and oxidation at the cathode during battery cycling forming the passivation layer that could dramatically slow down cathode dissolution and capacit

    Discourse analysis and emotions

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    This chapter is concerned with discourse-centred approaches for examining emotion in conversation. Specifically, the chapter focuses on Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology. These approaches share a focus on the study of language as a topic in its own right- as a means of constructing, rather than representing, reality. With regard to emotion, the focus is on examining emotional displays and the ways in which these are invoked, managed and treated in conversation. The primary issue is the interactional work that is done and how notions of emotion are topicalized and managed in specific settings. The chapter has two major subsections. In the first I introduce Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology as research tools. I provide a description of each and outline their core methodological features. In the second I provide specific examples that illustrate the application of Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology to the study of emotion. The aim is to elucidate these approaches as ways of exploring emotion in naturally occurring interaction, highlighting the ways in which approaches based on analysis of authentic interaction can contribute to an understanding of emotion in conversation.N/