102 research outputs found

    Rehabilitation interventions for improving balance following stroke: an overview of systematic reviews

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    Background The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence from systematic reviews, to summarise the effects of rehabilitation interventions for improving balance in stroke survivors. Methods We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SRs). We included Cochrane Systematic Reviews and non-Cochrane Systematic Reviews of randomized-controlled clinical trials and not-randomized clinical trials, in all types of stroke, comparing the effects of interventions, control interventions and no interventions on balance-related outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases, from inception to December 2017. Data extracted included: number and type of participants, type of intervention, control intervention, method of assessing risk of bias of primary studies, balance outcome measures and results of statistical meta-analyses. Methodological quality of included reviews was assessed using AMSTAR 2. A narrative description of the characteristics of the SRs was provided and results of meta-analyses summarised with reference to their methodological quality. Results 51 SRs (248 primary studies and 10,638 participants) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the overview. All participants were adults with stroke. A wide variety of different balance and postural control outcomes were included. 61% of SRs focussed on the effectiveness of physical therapy, 20% virtual reality, 6% electromechanical devices, 4% Tai-Chi, whole body vibration and circuit training intervention, and 2% cognitive rehabilitation. The methodology of 54% of SRs were judged to be of a \u201clow or critically low\u201d quality, 23% \u201cmoderate\u201d quality and 22% \u201chigh\u201d quality. Conclusions There are 51 SRs of evidence relating to the effectiveness of interventions to improve balance in people with stroke, but the majority of these are of poor methodological quality, limiting our ability to draw clear implications. Only 22% of these SRs were judged to be of high quality, highlighting the need to address important methodological issues within rehabilitation research

    Professioni intellettuali e impresa. Un'analisi alla luce dei recenti interventi normativi del legislatore interno e comunitario

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    Secondo l'opinione prevalente i professionisti intellettuali non sono mai imprenditori ex ART. 2238 C.C. anche se le professioni intellettuali possono ormai presentare tutti i requisiti propri dell'attività d'impresa, ne consegue che i professionisti intellettuali sono esonerati dallo statuto dell'imprenditore per effetto di una precisa scelta del legislatore, tuttavia i recenti interventi del legislatore interno e comunitario hanno reso i confini tra professioni intellettuali e impresa sempre meno netti anche a livello normativoope

    Density Distribution Maps: A Novel Tool for Subcellular Distribution Analysis and Quantitative Biomedical Imaging

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    open5noSubcellular spatial location is an essential descriptor of molecules biological function. Presently, super-resolution microscopy techniques enable quantification of subcellular objects distribution in fluorescence images, but they rely on instrumentation, tools and expertise not constituting a default for most of laboratories. We propose a method that allows resolving subcellular structures location by reinforcing each single pixel position with the information from surroundings. Although designed for entry-level laboratory equipment with common resolution powers, our method is independent from imaging device resolution, and thus can benefit also super-resolution microscopy. The approach permits to generate density distribution maps (DDMs) informative of both objects’ absolute location and self-relative displacement, thus practically reducing location uncertainty and increasing the accuracy of signal mapping. This work proves the capability of the DDMs to: (a) improve the informativeness of spatial distributions; (b) empower subcellular molecules distributions analysis; (c) extend their applicability beyond mere spatial object mapping. Finally, the possibility of enhancing or even disclosing latent distributions can concretely speed-up routine, large-scale and follow-up experiments, besides representing a benefit for all spatial distribution studies, independently of the image acquisition resolution. DDMaker, a Software endowed with a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), is also provided to support users in DDMs creation.openIlaria De Santis; Michele Zanoni; Chiara Arienti; Alessandro Bevilacqua; Anna TeseiIlaria De Santis; Michele Zanoni; Chiara Arienti; Alessandro Bevilacqua; Anna Tese

    The structure of research questions in randomized-controlled trials in rehabilitation field

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    Objective The aim of this study is to assess whether and how PICO format is described to frame research questions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) looking at effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. Design A methodological study was conducted. RCTs in the rehabilitation field, published between July 1st, 2019 and December 31st, 2019 were included. The framing of the primary research question (RQ) from each trial was evaluated. Results Ninety-seven RCTs were included in the analysis. The most frequent framing of the primary RQ was as an \u201cobjective\u201d statement (55%) and in 33% of the articles this was stated as an \u201cobjective\u201d together with a \u201chypothesis\u201d description. All PICO elements were present in 55% of RQ, but only 49% have used the statement suggested by Cochrane. The results showed that the most frequent framing of primary RQ was \u201cobjective\u201d using all PICO elements, but few articles followed the statement suggested by Cochrane to describe them. Conclusion: our findings suggest that a specific item about the \u201cresearch question\u201d and the rationale that drove to the proposed design following the form suggested by Cochrane is included in the RCTRACK checklist

    Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and Their Interplay with Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs): A New World of Targets and Treatments.

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    Abstract: The importance of defining new molecules to fight cancer is of significant interest to the scientific community. In particular, it has been shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with capabilities of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity; on the other side, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) seem to split away from the primary tumor and appear in the circulatory system as singular units or clusters. It is becoming more and more important to discover new biomarkers related to these populations of cells in combination to define the network among them and the tumor microenvironment. In particular, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment with different functions, including matrix deposition and remodeling, extensive reciprocal signaling interactions with cancer cells and crosstalk with immunity. The settings of new markers and the definition of the molecular connections may present new avenues, not only for fighting cancer but also for the definition of more tailored therapies

    CometAnalyser : A user-friendly, open-source deep-learning microscopy tool for quantitative comet assay analysis

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    Comet assay provides an easy solution to estimate DNA damage in single cells through microscopy assessment. It is widely used in the analysis of genotoxic damages induced by radiotherapy or chemotherapeutic agents. DNA damage is quantified at the single-cell level by computing the displacement between the genetic material within the nucleus, typically called ``comet head", and the genetic material in the surrounding part of the cell, considered as the ``comet tail". Today, the number of works based on Comet Assay analyses is really impressive. In this work, besides revising the solutions available to obtain reproducible and reliable quantitative data, we developed an easy-to-use tool named CometAnalyser. It is designed for the analysis of both fluorescent and silver-stained wide-field microscopy images and allows to automatically segment and classify the comets, besides extracting Tail Moment and several other intensity/morphological features for performing statistical analysis. CometAnalyser is an open-source deep-learning tool. It works with Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX-based systems. Source code, standalone versions, user manual, sample images, video tutorial and further documentation are freely available at: https://sourceforge.net/p/cometanalyser. (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/).Peer reviewe

    The Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions in Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder during Clinical Rehabilitation: A Rapid Review

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    Background: This review examined the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) triggered by physical injury or medical trauma. It discusses implications in support of rehabilitation management for COVID-19 survivors diagnosed with PTSD. Methods: This study adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Interim Guidance from the Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group. The authors searched for randomized control trials in PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL databases up to 31 March 2021. Results: Five studies (n = 459) met the inclusion criteria. Each study measured a different comparison of interventions. The certainty of the evidence was judged to be very low for all outcomes. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom reduction was found to be in favor of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive function improvements were observed in favor of the cognitive processing therapy control intervention. Conclusions: Overall, there is uncertainty about whether behavioral interventions are effective in reducing PTSD symptoms and improving functioning and quality of life when the disorder is triggered by a physical or medical trauma rather than a psychological trauma. Further research should investigate their efficacy in the context of rehabilitation management and gather evidence on this populatio

    Rehabilitation definition for research purposes. A global stakeholders’ initiative by Cochrane Rehabilitation

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    Negrini S, Selb M, Kiekens C, et al. Rehabilitation definition for research purposes. A global stakeholders initiative by Cochrane Rehabilitation. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine . 2022.Since its foundation, Cochrane Rehabilitation has faced challenges with rehabilitation definitions because existing definitions did not indicate what rehabilitation includes and what it excludes. We aimed to develop a comprehensive and shared rehabilitation definition for research purposes to: 1) support the conduct of primary studies and systematic reviews, and 2) identify relevant systematic reviews for knowledge translation purposes. We performed a multimodal study including seven preliminary research and discussion papers, four Consensus Meetings and three Delphi rounds with 80 rehabilitation stakeholders. The Delphi Study aimed to obtain agreement, refine and complete the items composing the definition and meanings of rehabilitation. These stakeholders covered 5 continents, representing 11 global and continental rehabilitation organizations, 11 scientific journals, 4 Cochrane Networks and 3 Cochrane Groups, and included invited experts, and representatives of low middle-income countries (LMICs) and consumers. We had a 70% to 82.5% response rate to the three Delphi rounds, during which participants responded to all items (100%) and provided relevant comments (range 5.5-50% per item). This participation led to several refinements to the rehabilitation definition through three preliminary versions, and the final items reached an agreement between 88.9% and 100%. We structured the definition using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework. We concluded that "In a health care context," rehabilitation is defined as a "multimodal, person-centered, collaborative process" (Intervention-general), including interventions targeting a person's "capacity (by addressing body structures, functions, and activities/participation) and/or contextual factors related to performance" (Intervention-specific) with the goal of "optimizing" the "functioning" (Outcome) of "persons with health conditions currently experiencing disability or likely to experience disability, or persons with disability" (Population). Rehabilitation requires that all the items of the definition are satisfied. We defined a "rehabilitation intervention" as "any intervention provided within the rehabilitation process." We developed a rehabilitation definition for research purposes achieving a broad agreement with global stakeholders. This definition provides explicit criteria to define rehabilitation. Using the proposed definition will improve rehabilitation research by standardizing the description of interventions. Our definition may require revision in the future, as further research enhances understanding and communication of the essence and complexity of rehabilitation
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