19 research outputs found

    Payment by Mistake in English Law

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    Modality-Independent Teachers Meet Weakly-Supervised Audio-Visual Event Parser

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    Audio-visual learning has been a major pillar of multi-modal machine learning, where the community mostly focused on its modality-aligned setting, i.e., the audio and visual modality are both assumed to signal the prediction target. With the Look, Listen, and Parse dataset (LLP), we investigate the under-explored unaligned setting, where the goal is to recognize audio and visual events in a video with only weak labels observed. Such weak video-level labels only tell what events happen without knowing the modality they are perceived (audio, visual, or both). To enhance learning in this challenging setting, we incorporate large-scale contrastively pre-trained models as the modality teachers. A simple, effective, and generic method, termed Visual-Audio Label Elaboration (VALOR), is innovated to harvest modality labels for the training events. Empirical studies show that the harvested labels significantly improve an attentional baseline by 8.0 in average F-score (Type@AV). Surprisingly, we found that modality-independent teachers outperform their modality-fused counterparts since they are noise-proof from the other potentially unaligned modality. Moreover, our best model achieves the new state-of-the-art on all metrics of LLP by a substantial margin (+5.4 F-score for Type@AV). VALOR is further generalized to Audio-Visual Event Localization and achieves the new state-of-the-art as well. Code is available at: https://github.com/Franklin905/VALOR

    Robust estimation of bacterial cell count from optical density

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    Optical density (OD) is widely used to estimate the density of cells in liquid culture, but cannot be compared between instruments without a standardized calibration protocol and is challenging to relate to actual cell count. We address this with an interlaboratory study comparing three simple, low-cost, and highly accessible OD calibration protocols across 244 laboratories, applied to eight strains of constitutive GFP-expressing E. coli. Based on our results, we recommend calibrating OD to estimated cell count using serial dilution of silica microspheres, which produces highly precise calibration (95.5% of residuals <1.2-fold), is easily assessed for quality control, also assesses instrument effective linear range, and can be combined with fluorescence calibration to obtain units of Molecules of Equivalent Fluorescein (MEFL) per cell, allowing direct comparison and data fusion with flow cytometry measurements: in our study, fluorescence per cell measurements showed only a 1.07-fold mean difference between plate reader and flow cytometry data

    Payment by Mistake in English Law

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    Targeting Endothelium-Pericyte Cross Talk by Inhibiting VEGF Receptor Signaling Attenuates Kidney Microvascular Rarefaction and Fibrosis

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    Microvascular pericytes and perivascular fibroblasts have recently been identified as the source of scar-producing myofibroblasts that appear after injury of the kidney. We show that cross talk between pericytes and endothelial cells concomitantly dictates development of fibrosis and loss of microvasculature after injury. When either platelet-derived growth factor receptor (R)-β signaling in pericytes or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2 signaling in endothelial cells was blocked by circulating soluble receptor ectodomains, both fibrosis and capillary rarefaction were markedly attenuated during progressive kidney injury. Blockade of either receptor-mediated signaling pathway prevented pericyte differentiation and proliferation, but VEGFR2 blockade also attenuated recruitment of inflammatory macrophages throughout disease progression. Whereas injury down-regulated angiogenic VEGF164, the dys-angiogenic isomers VEGF120 and VEGF188 were up-regulated, suggesting that pericyte-myofibroblast differentiation triggers endothelial loss by a switch in secretion of VEGF isomers. These findings link fibrogenesis inextricably with microvascular rarefaction for the first time, add new significance to fibrogenesis, and identify novel therapeutic targets

    1980 Selected Bibliography

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    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy

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