383 research outputs found

    One-China Policy and Taiwan

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    In April 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) disease spread to the island of Taiwan. These statements, made by the general who assigned the R.O.C. government to assume the task of the post-surrender administration of Formosa, and those of the high governmental officials of the leading Allied Powers not only demonstrate that the R.O.C. government has not acquired title to the island of Taiwan by occupation for the State of China, but also attest to the existence of a rule in international law that if title to a territory of the defeated State is to be changed after a war, then it must be achieved by a territorial treaty. ... Because the modern State is based on territory, China\u27s claim of sovereignty over Taiwan is necessarily predicated on its claim of title to the island of Taiwan. As analyzed herein, China never reacquired title to the island of Taiwan by any recognized means in international law: it did not acquire it under the Cairo Declaration; it did not acquire it by the Peace Treaty of San Francisco or any other treaty

    Further Evidence for the Decay K+ to pi+ neutrino-antineutrino

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    Additional evidence for the rare kaon decay K+ to pi+ neutrino-antineutrino has been found in a new data set with comparable sensitivity to the previously reported result. One new event was observed in the pion momentum region examined, 211<P<229 MeV/c, bringing the total for the combined data set to two. Including all data taken, the backgrounds were estimated to contribute 0.15 pm 0.05 events. The branching ratio is B=1.57^{+1.75}_{-0.82} 10^{-10}.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure

    NGC 5548: Lack of a Broad Fe K Line and Constraints on the Location of the Hard X-ray Source

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    We present an analysis of the co-added and individual 0.7-40 keV spectra from seven Suzaku observations of the Sy 1.5 galaxy NGC 5548 taken over a period of eight weeks. We conclude that the source has a moderately ionized, three-zone warm absorber, a power-law continuum, and exhibits contributions from cold, distant reflection. Relativistic reflection signatures are not significantly detected in the co-added data, and we place an upper limit on the equivalent width of a relativistically broad Fe K line at EW \leq 26 eV at 90% confidence. Thus NGC 5548 can be labeled an "weak" type-1 AGN in terms of its observed inner disk reflection signatures, in contrast to sources with very broad, strong iron lines such as MCG-6-30-15, which are likely much fewer in number. We compare physical properties of NGC 5548 and MCG-6-30-15 that might explain this difference in their reflection properties. Though there is some evidence that NGC 5548 may harbor a truncated inner accretion disk, this evidence is inconclusive, so we also consider light bending of the hard X-ray continuum emission in order to explain the lack of relativistic reflection in our observation. If the absence of a broad Fe K line is interpreted in the light-bending context, we conclude that the source of the hard X-ray continuum lies at <100 gravitational radii. We note, however, that light-bending models must be expanded to include a broader range of physical parameter space in order to adequately explain the spectral and timing properties of average AGN, rather than just those with strong, broad iron lines.Comment: 42 pages (preprint format), 8 figures. Accepted by Ap

    Search for the decay K+π+ννˉK^+\to \pi^+ \nu \bar\nu in the momentum region Pπ<195 MeV/cP_\pi < 195 {\rm ~MeV/c}

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    We have searched for the decay K+π+ννˉK^+ \to \pi^+ \nu \bar\nu in the kinematic region with pion momentum below the K+π+π0K^+ \to \pi^+ \pi^0 peak. One event was observed, consistent with the background estimate of 0.73±0.180.73\pm 0.18. This implies an upper limit on B(K+π+ννˉ)<4.2×109B(K^+ \to \pi^+ \nu \bar\nu)< 4.2\times 10^{-9} (90% C.L.), consistent with the recently measured branching ratio of (1.570.82+1.75)×1010(1.57^{+1.75}_{-0.82}) \times 10^{-10}, obtained using the standard model spectrum and the kinematic region above the K+π+π0K^+ \to \pi^+ \pi^0 peak. The same data were used to search for K+π+X0K^+ \to \pi^+ X^0, where X0X^0 is a weakly interacting neutral particle or system of particles with 150<MX0<250 MeV/c2150 < M_{X^0} < 250 {\rm ~MeV/c^2}.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Intervention planning and modification of the BUMP intervention: a digital intervention for the early detection of raised blood pressure in pregnancy

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    Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia, pose a substantial health risk for both maternal and foetal outcomes. The BUMP (Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring in Pregnancy) interventions are being tested in a trial. They aim to facilitate the early detection of raised blood pressure through self-monitoring. This article outlines how the self-monitoring interventions in the BUMP trial were developed and modified using the person-based approach to promote engagement and adherence. Methods: Key behavioural challenges associated with blood pressure self-monitoring in pregnancy were identified through synthesising qualitative pilot data and existing evidence, which informed guiding principles for the development process. Social cognitive theory was identified as an appropriate theoretical framework. A testable logic model was developed to illustrate the hypothesised processes of change associated with the intervention. Iterative qualitative feedback from women and staff informed modifications to the participant materials. Results: The evidence synthesis suggested women face challenges integrating self-monitoring into their lives and that adherence is challenging at certain time points in pregnancy (for example, starting maternity leave). Intervention modification included strategies to address adherence but also focussed on modifying outcome expectancies, by providing messages explaining pre-eclampsia and outlining the potential benefits of self-monitoring. Conclusions: With an in-depth understanding of the target population, several methods and approaches to plan and develop interventions specifically relevant to pregnant women were successfully integrated, to address barriers to behaviour change while ensuring they are easy to engage with, persuasive and acceptable

    Search for the decay K+ to pi+ gamma gamma in the pi+ momentum region P>213 MeV/c

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    We have searched for the K+ to pi+ gamma gamma decay in the kinematic region with pi+ momentum close to the end point. No events were observed, and the 90% confidence-level upper limit on the partial branching ratio was obtained, B(K+ to pi+ gamma gamma, P>213 MeV/c) < 8.3 x 10-9 under the assumption of chiral perturbation theory including next-to-leading order ``unitarity'' corrections. The same data were used to determine an upper limit on the K+ to pi+ gamma branching ratio of 2.3 x 10-9 at the 90% confidence level.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures; no change in the results, accepted for publication in Physics Letters

    Improved measurement of the K+->pi+nu(nu)over-bar branching ratio

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    An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nu(nu) over bar has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nu(nu) over bar)=(1.47(-0.89)(+1.30))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211<P<229 MeV/c. At the measured central value of the branching ratio, the additional event had a signal-to-background ratio of 0.9

    Biphasic electrode suspensions for Li-ion semi-solid flow cells with high energy density, fast charge transport, and low-dissipation flow

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    fl exibility, have been investigated both experimentally The rapidly increasing deployment of wind and solar energy has resulted in an urgent need for a smarter, more effi cient and reliable electric grid for load balancing. Flow batteries are particularly attractive due to their decoupled energy and power, providing design fl exibility especially at large scales
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