28 research outputs found

    The Distributional Hypothesis Does Not Fully Explain the Benefits of Masked Language Model Pretraining

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    We analyze the masked language modeling pretraining objective function from the perspective of the distributional hypothesis. We investigate whether better sample efficiency and the better generalization capability of models pretrained with masked language modeling can be attributed to the semantic similarity encoded in the pretraining data's distributional property. Via a synthetic dataset, our analysis suggests that distributional property indeed leads to the better sample efficiency of pretrained masked language models, but does not fully explain the generalization capability. We also conduct analyses over two real-world datasets and demonstrate that the distributional property does not explain the generalization ability of pretrained natural language models either. Our results illustrate our limited understanding of model pretraining and provide future research directions.Comment: EMNLP 202

    Learning Multi-Level Information for Dialogue Response Selection by Highway Recurrent Transformer

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    With the increasing research interest in dialogue response generation, there is an emerging branch formulating this task as selecting next sentences, where given the partial dialogue contexts, the goal is to determine the most probable next sentence. Following the recent success of the Transformer model, this paper proposes (1) a new variant of attention mechanism based on multi-head attention, called highway attention, and (2) a recurrent model based on transformer and the proposed highway attention, so-called Highway Recurrent Transformer. Experiments on the response selection task in the seventh Dialog System Technology Challenge (DSTC7) show the capability of the proposed model of modeling both utterance-level and dialogue-level information; the effectiveness of each module is further analyzed as well

    An Empirical Study of Content Understanding in Conversational Question Answering

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    With a lot of work about context-free question answering systems, there is an emerging trend of conversational question answering models in the natural language processing field. Thanks to the recently collected datasets, including QuAC and CoQA, there has been more work on conversational question answering, and recent work has achieved competitive performance on both datasets. However, to best of our knowledge, two important questions for conversational comprehension research have not been well studied: 1) How well can the benchmark dataset reflect models' content understanding? 2) Do the models well utilize the conversation content when answering questions? To investigate these questions, we design different training settings, testing settings, as well as an attack to verify the models' capability of content understanding on QuAC and CoQA. The experimental results indicate some potential hazards in the benchmark datasets, QuAC and CoQA, for conversational comprehension research. Our analysis also sheds light on both what models may learn and how datasets may bias the models. With deep investigation of the task, it is believed that this work can benefit the future progress of conversation comprehension. The source code is available at https://github.com/MiuLab/CQA-Study.Comment: Published at AAAI 202

    TripleNet: A Low Computing Power Platform of Low-Parameter Network

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    With the excellent performance of deep learning technology in the field of computer vision, convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture has become the main backbone of computer vision task technology. With the widespread use of mobile devices, neural network models based on platforms with low computing power are gradually being paid attention. This paper proposes a lightweight convolutional neural network model, TripleNet, an improved convolutional neural network based on HarDNet and ThreshNet, inheriting the advantages of small memory usage and low power consumption of the mentioned two models. TripleNet uses three different convolutional layers combined into a new model architecture, which has less number of parameters than that of HarDNet and ThreshNet. CIFAR-10 and SVHN datasets were used for image classification by employing HarDNet, ThreshNet, and our proposed TripleNet for verification. Experimental results show that, compared with HarDNet, TripleNet's parameters are reduced by 66% and its accuracy rate is increased by 18%; compared with ThreshNet, TripleNet's parameters are reduced by 37% and its accuracy rate is increased by 5%.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Three-stage binarization of color document images based on discrete wavelet transform and generative adversarial networks

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    The efficient segmentation of foreground text information from the background in degraded color document images is a hot research topic. Due to the imperfect preservation of ancient documents over a long period of time, various types of degradation, including staining, yellowing, and ink seepage, have seriously affected the results of image binarization. In this paper, a three-stage method is proposed for image enhancement and binarization of degraded color document images by using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and generative adversarial network (GAN). In Stage-1, we use DWT and retain the LL subband images to achieve the image enhancement. In Stage-2, the original input image is split into four (Red, Green, Blue and Gray) single-channel images, each of which trains the independent adversarial networks. The trained adversarial network models are used to extract the color foreground information from the images. In Stage-3, in order to combine global and local features, the output image from Stage-2 and the original input image are used to train the independent adversarial networks for document binarization. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms many classical and state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods on the Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO) dataset. We release our implementation code at https://github.com/abcpp12383/ThreeStageBinarization

    Robust estimation of bacterial cell count from optical density

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    Optical density (OD) is widely used to estimate the density of cells in liquid culture, but cannot be compared between instruments without a standardized calibration protocol and is challenging to relate to actual cell count. We address this with an interlaboratory study comparing three simple, low-cost, and highly accessible OD calibration protocols across 244 laboratories, applied to eight strains of constitutive GFP-expressing E. coli. Based on our results, we recommend calibrating OD to estimated cell count using serial dilution of silica microspheres, which produces highly precise calibration (95.5% of residuals <1.2-fold), is easily assessed for quality control, also assesses instrument effective linear range, and can be combined with fluorescence calibration to obtain units of Molecules of Equivalent Fluorescein (MEFL) per cell, allowing direct comparison and data fusion with flow cytometry measurements: in our study, fluorescence per cell measurements showed only a 1.07-fold mean difference between plate reader and flow cytometry data

    A Context-Aware, Interactive M-Health System for Diabetics

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    [[abstract]]The authors' context-aware interactive mobile-health (m-health) system (ImHS) provides real-time, two-way communication between diabetes patients and caregivers by utilizing Internet of Things (IoT) technology. When a diabetic patient records abnormal blood sugar values during measurement, the ImHS sends a reminder to the patient and caregivers, motivating behavior change and improving the quality of chronic care. The ImHS features user-friendly interfaces for patients, family, and professional caregivers that lets them rapidly understand the patient's health status. In this study, the authors look at ImHS use in diabetes care. However, the ImHS can be easily adapted for integration into other healthcare systems.[[journaltype]]國外[[incitationindex]]SCI[[ispeerreviewed]]Y[[countrycodes]]US