49 research outputs found

    Oral medicine case book 53: radiation - induced xerostomia

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    A 76-year old male presented at the Oral Medicine Clinic, complaining of a persistent feeling of a dry mouth, subsequent to having undergone surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 18 months previously. Other than the cancer, he had no systemic problems of note and was otherwise in good physical health. Upon further questioning, the patient reported that the dry mouth condition was affecting his quality of life and that he was losing weight due to difficulty in eating. He further emphasised that his mouth felt dry within five minutes of rinsing his mouth with the palliative agents suggested by his dentist and oncologist. The regimen he followed to relieve his symptoms included glycerine BP oil, Candacide© (a nystatin containing product), Biotene© mouth spray and mouthrinse (these products contain lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin), Orbit© sugar free gum and an increased frequency of water intake.Department of HE and Training approved lis

    LYVE-1+ macrophages form a collaborative CCR5-dependent perivascular niche that influences chemotherapy responses in murine breast cancer

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    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that facilitate cancer progression. However, our knowledge of the niches of individual TAM subsets and their development and function remain incomplete. Here, we describe a population of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1)-expressing TAMs, which form coordinated multi-cellular “nest” structures that are heterogeneously distributed proximal to vasculature in tumors of a spontaneous murine model of breast cancer. We demonstrate that LYVE-1+ TAMs develop in response to IL-6, which induces their expression of the immune-suppressive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and promotes a CCR5-dependent signaling axis, which guides their nest formation. Blocking the development of LYVE-1+ TAMs or their nest structures, using gene-targeted mice, results in an increase in CD8+ T cell recruitment to the tumor and enhanced response to chemotherapy. This study highlights an unappreciated collaboration of a TAM subset to form a coordinated niche linked to immune exclusion and resistance to anti-cancer therapy

    LYVE-1+ macrophages form a collaborative CCR5-dependent perivascular niche that influences chemotherapy responses in murine breast cancer.

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    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that facilitate cancer progression. However, our knowledge of the niches of individual TAM subsets and their development and function remain incomplete. Here, we describe a population of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1)-expressing TAMs, which form coordinated multi-cellular "nest" structures that are heterogeneously distributed proximal to vasculature in tumors of a spontaneous murine model of breast cancer. We demonstrate that LYVE-1 + TAMs develop in response to IL-6, which induces their expression of the immune-suppressive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and promotes a CCR5-dependent signaling axis, which guides their nest formation. Blocking the development of LYVE-1 + TAMs or their nest structures, using gene-targeted mice, results in an increase in CD8 + T cell recruitment to the tumor and enhanced response to chemotherapy. This study highlights an unappreciated collaboration of a TAM subset to form a coordinated niche linked to immune exclusion and resistance to anti-cancer therapy

    Expression of integrin-linked kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma

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    published_or_final_versionMedical SciencesMasterMaster of Medical Science

    The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception and beyond : a systematic review update

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    CITATION: Goldstuck, N. D. & Cheung, T. S. 2019. The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception and beyond : a systematic review update. International Journal of Women's Health, 11:471-479, doi:10.2147/IJWH.S213815.The original publication is available at https://www.dovepress.comBackground: The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a very effective form of emergency contraception. The failure rate is about 0.1%. IUDs are also very cost-effective when used as long acting-reversible contraception (LARC). The purpose of this review is to attempt to confirm these findings. Methods: The references for this study were generated by entering the terms “intrauterine device” “and “emergency contraception” in Medline, PubMed, Popline, Global Health and ClinicalTrials.gov. Chinese references were obtained from the Wanfang database. For the emergency contraception study, articles with a defined population who were followed up until outcome were eligible. Women who were adequately followed for at least 6 months were included in the long term arm of the study. Results: There were 18 (of 228) studies which met our selection criteria and were conducted in five countries, between August 2011 and January 2018. There were 1720 insertions of seven types of copper IUD with a failure rate of 0.12%. The maximum time from intercourse to IUD insertion was 14 days. The discontinuation rate at 12 months was over 20% in the long term studies. Conclusion: There are now a combined total of 8550 reported insertions from two reviews with 8 pregnancies and a failure rate of 0.093%. Copper IUDs remain an effective form of emergency contraception, for which they are under-promoted. The major limitation of the studies is the lack of data relating unprotected intercourse to the day of the cycle.https://www.dovepress.com/the-efficacy-of-intrauterine-devices-for-emergency-contraception-and-b-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-IJWHPublisher's versio
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