1,989 research outputs found

    The Dependent Coverage Provision Is Good for Mothers, Good for Children, and Good for Taxpayers

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    Importance The effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) dependent coverage provision on pregnancy-related health care and health outcomes is unknown. Objective To determine whether the dependent coverage provision was associated with changes in payment for birth, prenatal care, and birth outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study, using a differences-in-differences analysis of individual-level birth certificate data comparing live births among US women aged 24 to 25 years (exposure group) and women aged 27 to 28 years (control group) before (2009) and after (2011-2013) enactment of the dependent coverage provision. Results were stratified by marital status. Main Exposures The dependent coverage provision of the ACA, which allowed young adults to stay on their parent’s health insurance until age 26 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were payment source for birth, early prenatal care (first visit in first trimester), and adequate prenatal care (a first trimester visit and 80% of expected visits). Secondary outcomes were cesarean delivery, premature birth, low birth weight, and infant neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Results The study population included 1 379 005 births among women aged 24 to 25 years (exposure group; 299 024 in 2009; 1 079 981 in 2011-2013), and 1 551 192 births among women aged 27 to 28 years (control group; 325 564 in 2009; 1 225 628 in 2011-2013). From 2011-2013, compared with 2009, private insurance payment for births increased in the exposure group (36.9% to 35.9% [difference, −1.0%]) compared with the control group (52.4% to 51.1% [difference, −1.3%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, 1.9 percentage points (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.1). Medicaid payment decreased in the exposure group (51.6% to 53.6% [difference, 2.0%]) compared with the control group (37.4% to 39.4% [difference, 1.9%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, −1.4 percentage points (95% CI, −1.7 to −1.2). Self-payment for births decreased in the exposure group (5.2% to 4.3% [difference, −0.9%]) compared with the control group (4.9% to 4.3% [difference, −0.5%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, −0.3 percentage points (95% CI, −0.4 to −0.1). Early prenatal care increased from 70% to 71.6% (difference, 1.6%) in the exposure group and from 75.7% to 76.8% (difference, 0.6%) in the control group (adjusted difference-in-differences, 0.6 percentage points [95% CI, 0.3 to 0.8]). Adequate prenatal care increased from 73.5% to 74.8% (difference, 1.3%) in the exposure group and from 77.5% to 78.8% (difference, 1.3%) in the control group (adjusted difference-in-differences, 0.4 percentage points [95% CI, 0.2 to 0.6]). Preterm birth decreased from 9.4% to 9.1% in the exposure group (difference, −0.3%) and from 9.1% to 8.9% in the control group (difference, −0.2%) (adjusted difference-in-differences, −0.2 percentage points (95% CI, −0.3 to −0.03). Overall, there were no significant changes in low birth weight, NICU admission, or cesarean delivery. In stratified analyses, changes in payment for birth, prenatal care, and preterm birth were concentrated among unmarried women. Conclusions and Relevance In this study of nearly 3 million births among women aged 24 to 25 years vs those aged 27 to 28 years, the Affordable Care Act dependent coverage provision was associated with increased private insurance payment for birth, increased use of prenatal care, and modest reduction in preterm births, but was not associated with changes in cesarean delivery rates, low birth weight, or NICU admission

    Offering Breakfast in the Classroom and Children’s Weight Outcomes

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    Obesity is a serious health problem for many children in the United States. Approximately 32% of US children aged 2 to 19 years have overweight or obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥85th percentile), and nearly 8% of infants and toddlers younger than 2 years have a weight-for-length at the 95th percentile or greater, predisposing them to obesity. Obesity leads to serious, lifelong medical and psychosocial problems and premature death. These consequences disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minority groups and low-income communities, where obesity is most pronounced. Despite previous reports that childhood obesity has remained stable or decreased, more recent evidence shows that the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity is unfortunately increasing, especially among preschool-aged children

    A cross-sectional study of predatory publishing emails received by career development grant awardees

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the scope of academic spam emails (ASEs) among career development grant awardees and the factors associated with the amount of time spent addressing them. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of career development grant investigators via an anonymous online survey was conducted. In addition to demographic and professional information, we asked investigators to report the number of ASEs received each day, how they determined whether these emails were spam and time they spent per day addressing them. We used bivariate analysis to assess factors associated with the amount of time spent on ASEs. SETTING: An online survey sent via email on three separate occasions between November and December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: All National Institutes of Health career development awardees funded in the 2015 fiscal year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors associated with the amount of time spent addressing ASEs. RESULTS: A total of 3492 surveys were emailed, of which 206 (5.9%) were returned as undeliverable and 96 (2.7%) reported an out-of-office message; our overall response rate was 22.3% (n=733). All respondents reported receiving ASEs, with the majority (54.4%) receiving between 1 and 10 per day and spending between 1 and 10 min each day evaluating them. The amount of time respondents reported spending on ASEs was associated with the number of peer-reviewed journal articles authored (p<0.001), a history of publishing in open access format (p<0.01), the total number of ASEs received (p<0.001) and a feeling of having missed opportunities due to ignoring these emails (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: ASEs are a common distraction for career development grantees that may impact faculty productivity. There is an urgent need to mitigate this growing problem

    Communications Between Pregnant Women and Maternity Care Clinicians

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    This survey study assesses patients’ self-reported communication experiences with their maternity care clinicians and examines the association of these experiences with women’s reports of feeling pressure to have interventions during delivery

    Let them speak for themselves: Improving adolescent self-report rate on pre-visit screening

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    Background Adolescent pre-visit screening on patient-generated health data is a common and efficient practice to guide clinical decision making. However, proxy informants (e.g., parents or caregivers) often complete these forms, which may lead to incorrect information or lack of confidentiality. Our objective was to improve the adolescent self-report rate on pre-visit screening. Methods We conducted an interventional study using an interrupted time-series design to compare adolescent self-report rates (percent of adolescents ages 12-18 years completing their own pre-visit screening) over 16 months in general pediatric ambulatory clinics. We collected data using a computerized clinical decision support system with waiting room electronic tablet screening. Pre-intervention rates were low, and we created and implemented two electronic workflow alerts, one each to the patient/caregiver and clinical staff, reminding them that the adolescent should answer the questions independently. We included the first encounter from each adolescent and evaluated changes in adolescent self-reporting between pre- and post-intervention periods using interrupted time series analysis. Results Patients or caregivers completed 2,670 qualifying pre-visit screenings across 19 pre-intervention, 7 intervention, and 44 post-intervention weeks. Self-reporting by younger adolescents nearly doubled with a significant increase of 19.3 percentage points (CI 9.1-29.5) from the baseline 20.5%. Among older adolescents, the stable baseline rate of 53.6% increased by 9.2 absolute percentage points (CI -7.0-25.3). There were no significant pre- or post-intervention secular trends. Conclusions Two automated alerts directing clinic personnel and families to have adolescents self-report significantly and sustainably improved younger adolescent self-reporting on electronic patient-generated health data instruments

    Delaying School Start Times to Improve Population Health

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    Vaping and Youth—First, Do No Harm

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    Codesigned Shared Decision-Making Diabetes Management Plan Tool for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Their Parents: Prototype Development and Pilot Test

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    Background: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus have difficulty achieving optimal glycemic control, partly due to competing priorities that interfere with diabetes self-care. Often, significant diabetes-related family conflict occurs, and adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about diabetes management may be disregarded. Patient-centered diabetes outcomes may be better when adolescents feel engaged in the decision-making process. Objective: The objective of our study was to codesign a clinic intervention using shared decision making for addressing diabetes self-care with an adolescent patient and parent advisory board. Methods: The patient and parent advisory board consisted of 6 adolescents (teens) between the ages 12 and 18 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents recruited through our institution’s Pediatric Diabetes Program. Teens and parents provided informed consent and participated in 1 or both of 2 patient and parent advisory board sessions, lasting 3 to 4 hours each. Session 1 topics were (1) patient-centered outcomes related to quality of life, parent-teen shared diabetes management, and shared family experiences; and (2) implementation and acceptability of a patient-centered diabetes care plan intervention where shared decision making was used. We analyzed audio recordings, notes, and other materials to identify and extract ideas relevant to the development of a patient-centered diabetes management plan. These data were visually coded into similar themes. We used the information to develop a prototype for a diabetes management plan tool that we pilot tested during session 2. Results: Session 1 identified 6 principal patient-centered quality-of-life measurement domains: stress, fear and worry, mealtime struggles, assumptions and judgments, feeling abnormal, and conflict. We determined 2 objectives to be principally important for a diabetes management plan intervention: (1) focusing the intervention on diabetes distress and conflict resolution strategies, and (2) working toward a verbalized common goal. In session 2, we created the diabetes management plan tool according to these findings and will use it in a clinical trial with the aim of assisting with patient-centered goal setting. Conclusions: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus can be effectively engaged and involved in patient-centered research design. Teens with type 1 diabetes mellitus prioritize reducing family conflict and fitting into their social milieu over health outcomes at this time in their lives. It is important to acknowledge this when designing interventions to improve health outcomes in teens with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Postnatal Depressive Symptoms Among Mothers and Fathers of Infants Born Preterm: Prevalence and Impacts on Children's Early Cognitive Function

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    OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is associated with lower cognitive functioning. One potential pathway is postnatal parental depression. The authors assessed depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers after preterm birth, and identified the impacts of both prematurity and parental depressive symptoms on children's early cognitive function. METHOD: Data were from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (n = 5350). Depressive symptoms at 9 months were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) and children's cognitive function at 24 months by the Bayley Short Form, Research Edition. Weighted generalized estimating equation models examined the extent to which preterm birth, and mothers' and fathers' postnatal depressive symptoms impacted children's cognitive function at 24 months, and whether the association between preterm birth and 24-month cognitive function was mediated by parental depressive symptoms. RESULTS: At 9 months, fathers of very preterm (<32 weeks gestation) and moderate/late preterm (32-37 weeks gestation) infants had higher CESD scores than fathers of term-born (≥37 weeks gestation) infants (p value = .02); preterm birth was not associated with maternal depressive symptoms. In multivariable analyses, preterm birth was associated with lower cognitive function at 24 months; this association was unaffected by adjustment for parental depressive symptoms. Fathers', but not mothers', postnatal depressive symptoms predicted lower cognitive function in the fully adjusted model (β = -0.11, 95% confidence interval, -0.18 to -0.03). CONCLUSION: Fathers of preterm infants have more postnatal depressive symptomology than fathers of term-born infants. Fathers' depressive symptoms also negatively impact children's early cognitive function. The national findings support early identification and treatment of fathers of preterm infants with depressive symptoms

    A six-year repeated evaluation of computerized clinical decision support system user acceptability

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    OBJECTIVE: Long-term acceptability among computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) users in pediatrics is unknown. We examine user acceptance patterns over six years of our continuous computerized CDSS integration and updates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Users of Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA), a CDSS integrated into clinical workflows and used in several urban pediatric community clinics, completed annual surveys including 11 questions covering user acceptability. We compared responses across years within a single healthcare system and between two healthcare systems. We used logistic regression to assess the odds of a favorable response to each question by survey year, clinic role, part-time status, and frequency of CHICA use. RESULTS: Data came from 380 completed surveys between 2011 and 2016. Responses were significantly more favorable for all but one measure by 2016 (OR range 2.90-12.17, all p < 0.01). Increasing system maturity was associated with improved perceived function of CHICA (OR range 4.24-7.58, p < 0.03). User familiarity was positively associated with perceived CDSS function (OR range 3.44-8.17, p < 0.05) and usability (OR range 9.71-15.89, p < 0.01) opinions. CONCLUSION: We present a long-term, repeated follow-up of user acceptability of a CDSS. Favorable opinions of the CDSS were more likely in frequent users, physicians and advanced practitioners, and full-time workers. CHICA acceptability increased as it matured and users become more familiar with it. System quality improvement, user support, and patience are important in achieving wide-ranging, sustainable acceptance of CDSS
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