426 research outputs found

    An equilibrium-conserving taxation scheme for income from capital

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    Under conditions of market equilibrium, the distribution of capital income follows a Pareto power law, with an exponent that characterizes the given equilibrium. Here, a simple taxation scheme is proposed such that the post-tax capital income distribution remains an equilibrium distribution, albeit with a different exponent. This taxation scheme is shown to be progressive, and its parameters can be simply derived from (i) the total amount of tax that will be levied, (ii) the threshold selected above which capital income will be taxed and (iii) the total amount of capital income. The latter can be obtained either by using Piketty's estimates of the capital/labor income ratio or by fitting the initial Pareto exponent. Both ways moreover provide a check on the amount of declared income from capital.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Natural Gas

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    Natural gas is mostly formed from plankton—tiny water-dwelling organisms, including algae and protozoans—that accumulated on the ocean floor as they died. These organisms were slowly buried and compressed under layers of sediment. Over long periods of time, the pressure and heat generated by overlying sediments converted this organic material into natural gas. Natural gas frequently migrates through porous and fractured reservoir rock with petroleum and subsequently accumulates in underground reservoirs. Because natural gas and petroleum are formed by similar natural processes, these two hydrocarbons are often found together in underground reservoirs

    Unemployment: Study of Causes and Possible Solutions

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    The following measures against unemployment are proposed: In the short term, to promote greater income for the poorest sectors. It is shown that this can be paid with the resulting increased production, without losing income to the other economic agents. In the mid term, the creation of ad-hoc companies for investment in projects profitable but long lasting. And in the long run, the abandonment of the competitive models. As these proposals go against current ideas (liberalisation, labour market flexibility, free market, etc.), the statements are rigorously demonstrated, even at the risk of making the lecture harder. Part 1 explores the problem and uses a simple model and others heuristic arguments to create familiarity with macroeconomic models. Part 2 is a simplified summary of Macroeconomic Theory textbook. It serves as a review to the reader whose knowledge in economy are out of date, or as a first approximation to the topic if he or she does not have them. In the light of the theory, economic policies are evaluated for the Argentine case in the 90's. The work accepts the Keynesian explanation of unemployment (insufficient demand), but we disagree on its solution (public expenditure). Finally, in Part 3 we elaborate and justify the proposals.Comment: T.P.Eggarter (physicist) passed away in August 1997. This work was done during his last months of life and only locally published up to now. Work is in Spanish and could be translated upon request. Please contact E. Alvarez [email protected]

    Determination of Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution of Organic Solutes in the Ionic Liquid 1‑(2-Hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium Nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate Using Gas–Liquid Chromatography

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    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution (γ<sub><i>i</i></sub><sup>∞</sup>) for a variety of organic solutes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkyl benzenes, alcohols, 1,4-dioxane, acetone, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, and dichloromethane) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate ([C<sub>2</sub>OHmim]­[C<sub>4</sub>F<sub>9</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>]) have been determined by gas–liquid chromatography using the IL as the stationary phase. The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from 303 to 353 K. The partial molar excess Gibbs energies (Δ<i>G</i><sub><i>i</i></sub><sup>E,∞</sup>), enthalpies (Δ<i>H</i><sub><i>i</i></sub><sup>E,∞</sup>), and entropies (Δ<i>S</i><sub><i>i</i></sub><sup>E,∞</sup>) at infinite dilution of the solutes in the ionic liquid were calculated from the temperature dependence of the values of γ<sub><i>i</i></sub><sup>∞</sup>. Values of selectivity <i>s</i><sub><i>ij</i></sub><sup>∞</sup> and capacity <i>k</i><sub><i>j</i></sub><sup>∞</sup> at <i>T</i> = 323.15 K for the IL [C<sub>2</sub>OHmim]­[C<sub>4</sub>F<sub>9</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>] were calculated for both cyclohexane/benzene and benzene/methanol binary systems. The results obtained from this work were compared with reported literature data for other [C<sub>2</sub>OHmim] based ILs

    Computation of high-order virial coefficients in high-dimensional hard-sphere fluids by Mayer sampling

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    <div><p>The Mayer sampling method was used to compute the virial coefficients of high-dimensional hard-sphere fluids. The first 64 virial coefficients for dimensions 12 < <i>D</i> ⩽ 100 were obtained to high precision, and several lower dimensional virial coefficients were computed. The radii of convergence of the virial series in 13, 15, 17 and 19 dimensions agreed well with the analytical results from the Percus–Yevick closure.</p></div

    Behavioral data.

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    <p>Behavioral data.</p

    Determination of urine H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> levels in male groups (treatment & genotype).

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    <p>A significant genotype effect was found between Wt-vehicle and Tg-vehicle males, indicating a significant oxidative damage might exist in Tg males. Moreover, there was no difference between Wt-vehicle and Wt-drug males. However, a significant reduction was detected in Tg-drug males compared to their Tg-vehicle counterparts, which demonstrated that the drug might have a potentially protective effect against ROS. As for female groups, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> concentrations were below the level of detection. Genotype effect (Wt v.s. Tg): +P<0.05. Treatment effect (vehicle v.s. drug): *P<0.05. All data are expressed as Mean ± SEM, N = 5 mice/group.</p

    Total antioxidant capacity levels in the cortex of (A) male mice, (B) female mice, and (C) urine samples.

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    <p>VMW: vehicle treated male Wt mice, DMW: drug treated male Wt mice, VMT: vehicle treated male Tg mice, DMT: drug treated male Tg mice, VFT: vehicle treated female Tg mice, DFT: drug treated female Tg mice. Genotype effect (Wt v.s. Tg): +P<0.05, ++P<0.01. Treatment effect (vehicle v.s. drug): *P<0.05. All data are expressed as Mean ± SEM, N = 5 mice/group.</p