256 research outputs found

    Energy regeneration from suspension dynamic modes and self-powered actuation

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    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.This paper concerns energy harvesting from vehicle suspension systems. The generated power associated with bounce, pitch and roll modes of vehicle dynamics is determined through analysis. The potential values of power generation from these three modes are calculated. Next, experiments are carried out using a vehicle with a four jack shaker rig to validate the analytical values of potential power harvest. For the considered vehicle, maximum theoretical power values of 1.1kW, 0.88kW and 0.97kW are associated with the bounce, pitch and roll modes, respectively, at 20 Hz excitation frequency and peak to peak displacement amplitude of 5 mm at each wheel, as applied by the shaker. The corresponding experimentally power values are 0.98kW, 0.74kW and 0.78kW. An experimental rig is also developed to study the behavior of regenerative actuators in generating electrical power from kinetic energy. This rig represents a quarter-vehicle suspension model where the viscous damper in the shock absorber system is replaced by a regenerative system. The rig is able to demonstrate the actual electrical power that can be harvested using a regenerative system. The concept of self-powered actuation using the harvested energy from suspension is discussed with regard to applications of self-powered vibration control. The effect of suspension energy regeneration on ride comfort and road handling is presented in conjunction with energy harvesting associated with random road excitations.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Interpretation of Overly Open Advertising Texts in Print Media

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    The advertising texts of print media is one of the important manner to communicate the marketing messages with consumers. Under the post modern era, the form of advertising texts has been influenced by the reading habit of readers. Overly open advertising texts which is anti-formed, irrational appealing, image centred and ambiguous, is popular for marketers to transmitting their product and brand information. However, whether the overly open advertising texts is interpreted by consumers, to what extent consumers are going to involved in the advertising texts and the attitude differences of consumers. In this research, the examination of interpretation strategy toward overly open advertising texts is targeting on the consumers with Western and Eastern cultural background. According to Hofstede (2001), the cultural characteristics can be classified distinctly into people from Western and Eastern countries. Also, the three aspects, namely consumer attitude, involvement, and cognitive dissonance, are adopted to provide the thoroughly understand toward overly open advertising texts. In order to gain the understanding of the overly open advertising texts, qualitative research method is employed in this research to gain the in-depth information from both Western and Eastern participants. During the semi-structured interview, advertisements with overly open advertising texts were shown to interpreters to obtain the data from participants. The findings of the study have considerable managerial and theoretical implications, and can represent an starting point for future research into this topic

    Review of Methods Used for Microalgal Lipid-Content Analysis

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    AbstractThis paper provides a brief overview of most recent strategies that used to analyze microalgal lipid content, including NIR spectroscopy and TD-NMR methods etc. Common methods like gravimetric quantification and staining quantification are also introduced in this report. The physiology background of microalgal lipid accumulation is stated in order to clarify the purpose of each individual analytical method. After all, online lipid content measurement method that has good accuracy has the best chance to be generalized for all the lipid analyzing researches

    Security Issuance, Institutional Investors and Quid Pro Quo: Insights from SPACs

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    Security issuance is subject to informational and agency-related frictions. However, their effects on IPO underpricing are difficult to disentangle. We consider SPACs and use their institutional features to study these effects separately. To this end, we identify premium investors who produce information and whose participation is associated with higher SPAC success and announcement-period returns. In contrast, non-premium investors engage in quid pro quo, such that their high returns today means higher participation in weaker future deals. Furthermore, this quid pro quo is not pure agency cost: rather, it acts as insurance for issuers, enabling marginal firms to access financial markets

    An Efficient Distributed Nash Equilibrium Seeking with Compressed and Event-triggered Communication

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    Distributed Nash equilibrium (NE) seeking problems for networked games have been widely investigated in recent years. Despite the increasing attention, communication expenditure is becoming a major bottleneck for scaling up distributed approaches within limited communication bandwidth between agents. To reduce communication cost, an efficient distributed NE seeking (ETC-DNES) algorithm is proposed to obtain an NE for games over directed graphs, where the communication efficiency is improved by event-triggered exchanges of compressed information among neighbors. ETC-DNES saves communication costs in both transmitted bits and rounds of communication. Furthermore, our method only requires the row-stochastic property of the adjacency matrix, unlike previous approaches that hinged on doubly-stochastic communication matrices. We provide convergence guarantees for ETC-DNES on games with restricted strongly monotone mappings and testify its efficiency with no sacrifice on the accuracy. The algorithm and analysis are extended to a compressed algorithm with stochastic event-triggered mechanism (SETC-DNES). In SETC-DNES, we introduce a random variable in the triggering condition to further enhance algorithm efficiency. We demonstrate that SETC-DNES guarantees linear convergence to the NE while achieving even greater reductions in communication costs compared to ETC-DNES. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms

    A multiscale hybrid mathematical model of epidermal-dermal interactions during skin wound healing.

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    Following injury, skin activates a complex wound healing programme. While cellular and signalling mechanisms of wound repair have been extensively studied, the principles of epidermal-dermal interactions and their effects on wound healing outcomes are only partially understood. To gain new insight into the effects of epidermal-dermal interactions, we developed a multiscale, hybrid mathematical model of skin wound healing. The model takes into consideration interactions between epidermis and dermis across the basement membrane via diffusible signals, defined as activator and inhibitor. Simulations revealed that epidermal-dermal interactions are critical for proper extracellular matrix deposition in the dermis, suggesting these signals may influence how wound scars form. Our model makes several theoretical predictions. First, basal levels of epidermal activator and inhibitor help to maintain dermis in a steady state, whereas their absence results in a raised, scar-like dermal phenotype. Second, wound-triggered increase in activator and inhibitor production by basal epidermal cells, coupled with fast re-epithelialization kinetics, reduces dermal scar size. Third, high-density fibrin clot leads to a raised, hypertrophic scar phenotype, whereas low-density fibrin clot leads to a hypotrophic phenotype. Fourth, shallow wounds, compared to deep wounds, result in overall reduced scarring. Taken together, our model predicts the important role of signalling across dermal-epidermal interface and the effect of fibrin clot density and wound geometry on scar formation. This hybrid modelling approach may be also applicable to other complex tissue systems, enabling the simulation of dynamic processes, otherwise computationally prohibitive with fully discrete models due to a large number of variables

    Effect of solvation shell structure on thermopower of liquid redox pairs

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    Recent advancements in thermogalvanic batteries offer a promising route to efficient harvesting of low-grade heat with temperatures below 100 {\deg}C. The thermogalvanic temperature coefficient {\alpha}, usually referred to as effective thermopower, is the key parameter determining the power density and efficiency of thermogalvanic batteries. However, the current understanding of improving {\alpha} of redox pairs remains at the phenomenological level without microscopic insights, and the development of electrolytes with high {\alpha} largely relies on experimental trial and error. This work applies the free energy perturbation method based on molecular dynamics simulations to predict the {\alpha} of the {Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}} redox pair in aqueous and acetone solutions. We showed that {\alpha} of the {Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}} redox pair can be increased from 1.5{\pm}0.3 mV/K to 4.1{\pm}0.4 mV/K with the increased acetone to water fraction. The predicted {\alpha} of {Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}} both in pure water and acetone show excellent agreement with experimental values. By monitoring the fluctuation of dipole orientations in the first solvation shell, we discovered a significant change in the variance of solvent dipole orientation between Fe^{3+} and Fe^{2+}, which can be a microscopic indicator for large magnitudes of {\alpha}. The effect of acetone weight fraction in the mixed acetone-water solvent on the {\alpha} of {Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}} is also studied. Acetone molecules are found to intercalate into the first solvation shell of the {Fe^{2+}} ion at high acetone fractions, while this phenomenon is not observed in the solvation shell of the Fe^{3+} ion. Such solvation shell structure change of {Fe^{2+}} ions contributes to the enhanced {\alpha} at high acetone fractions. Our discovery provides atomistic insights into how solvation shell order can be leveraged to develop electrolytes with high thermopower
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