109 research outputs found

    Prediction of Stable Ground-State Lithium Polyhydrides under High Pressures

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    Hydrogen-rich compounds are important for understanding the dissociation of dense molecular hydrogen, as well as searching for room temperature Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductors. A recent high pressure experiment reported the successful synthesis of novel insulating lithium polyhydrides when above 130 GPa. However, the results are in sharp contrast to previous theoretical prediction by PBE functional that around this pressure range all lithium polyhydrides (LiHn (n = 2-8)) should be metallic. In order to address this discrepancy, we perform unbiased structure search with first principles calculation by including the van der Waals interaction that was ignored in previous prediction to predict the high pressure stable structures of LiHn (n = 2-11, 13) up to 200 GPa. We reproduce the previously predicted structures, and further find novel compositions that adopt more stable structures. The van der Waals functional (vdW-DF) significantly alters the relative stability of lithium polyhydrides, and predicts that the stable stoichiometries for the ground-state should be LiH2 and LiH9 at 130-170 GPa, and LiH2, LiH8 and LiH10 at 180-200 GPa. Accurate electronic structure calculation with GW approximation indicates that LiH, LiH2, LiH7, and LiH9 are insulative up to at least 208 GPa, and all other lithium polyhydrides are metallic. The calculated vibron frequencies of these insulating phases are also in accordance with the experimental infrared (IR) data. This reconciliation with the experimental observation suggests that LiH2, LiH7, and LiH9 are the possible candidates for lithium polyhydrides synthesized in that experiment. Our results reinstate the credibility of density functional theory in description H-rich compounds, and demonstrate the importance of considering van der Waals interaction in this class of materials.Comment: 34 pages, 15 figure

    Micro ribonucleic acid-448 regulates zinc finger e-box binding homeobox 1 to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and increase their sensitivity to chemotherapy

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    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB1) regulation by Micro Ribonucleic acid (miR)-448 on Breast Cancer (BC) cells and their sensitivity to chemotherapy. Methods: miR-448 and ZEB1 mRNA levels in BC and normal tissues were detected by qPCR, and ZEB1 protein was detected by Western Blotting (WB). The correlation between miR-448 and tumor metastasis, clinical staging, and ZEB1 expression was analyzed. MCF-7 cells were transfected or co-transfected with the miR-448 mimic, oe-ZEB1, or their negative controls. Changes in miR-448 and ZEB1 expression were detected by qPCR and WB. Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assays, invasion changes were analyzed by Transwell assays, and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: miR-448 expression in BC tissues was lower than that in normal tissues, while ZEB1 expression was increased in the former. ZEB1 expression was lower in BC patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without. In patients with clinical stage I–III BC, miR-448 expression decreased with an increase in tumor stage, which was negatively correlated with ZEB1 expression. Upregulation of miR-448 expression can suppress MCF-7 cell proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis. Upregulation of ZEB1 expression in cells overexpressing miR-448 can partially reverse the inhibition of BC cell growth induced by miR-448. miR-448 can enhance the sensitivity of cells toward paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil. Conclusions: miR-448 suppresses cell proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis by targeting ZEB1. Moreover, it can increase the sensitivity of cells toward paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil

    Acne and risk of mental disorders: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study based on large genome-wide association data

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    BackgroundDespite a growing body of evidence that acne impacts mental disorders, the actual causality has not been established for the possible presence of recall bias and confounders in observational studies.MethodsWe performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the effect of acne on the risk of six common mental disorders, i.e., depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We acquired genetic instruments for assessing acne from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of acne (N = 615,396) and collected summary statistics from the largest available GWAS for depression (N = 500,199), anxiety (N = 17,310), schizophrenia (N = 130,644), OCD (N = 9,725), bipolar disorder (N = 413,466), and PTSD (N = 174,659). Next, we performed the two-sample MR analysis using four methods: inverse-variance weighted method, MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outliers. Sensitivity analysis was also performed for heterogeneity and pleiotropy tests.ResultsThere was no evidence of a causal impact of acne on the risk of depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.002, p = 0.874], anxiety (OR: 0.961, p = 0.49), OCD (OR: 0.979, p = 0.741), bipolar disorder (OR: 0.972, p = 0.261), and PTSD (OR: 1.054, p = 0.069). Moreover, a mild protective effect of acne against schizophrenia was observed (OR: 0.944; p = 0.033).ConclusionThe increased prevalence of mental disorders observed in patients with acne in clinical practice was caused by modifiable factors, and was not a direct outcome of acne. Therefore, strategies targeting the elimination of potential factors and minimization of the occurrence of adverse mental events in acne should be implemented

    MicroRNA-298 Reverses Multidrug Resistance to Antiepileptic Drugs by Suppressing MDR1/P-gp Expression in vitro

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    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a critical multidrug transporter, recognizes and transports various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This may decrease the concentrations of AEDs in brain tissues and cause multidrug resistance (MDR) in patients with refractory epilepsy. Compelling evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate MDR in various cancers by regulating P-gp expression. Furthermore, a previous study showed that miR-298 mediates MDR in breast cancer cells by downregulating P-gp expression. Based on the therapeutic results obtained from tumor cells, we aimed to determine whether miR-298 reverses MDR to AEDs by regulating P-gp expression in the BBB. We first established different drug-resistant cell lines, including PHT-resistant HBMECs (human brain microvascular endothelial cells) and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant U87-MG (human malignant glioma) cells, by inducing P-gp overexpression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed reduced expression of miR-298 in both HBMEC/PHT and U87-MG/DOX cells, and the luciferase reporter assay identified the direct binding of miR-298 to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of P-gp. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-298 downregulated P-gp expression at the mRNA and protein levels, thereby increasing the intracellular accumulation of AEDs in drug-resistant HBMEC/PHT and U87-MG/DOX cells. Thus, our findings suggest that miR-298 reverses MDR to AEDs by inhibiting P-gp expression, suggesting a potential target for overcoming MDR in refractory epilepsy

    Frequency and spatial characteristics of highfrequency neuromagnetic signals in childhood epilepsy

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    Purpose. Invasive intracranial recordings have suggested that high-frequency oscillation is involved in epileptogenesis and is highly localized to epileptogenic zones. The aim of the present study is to characterize the frequency and spatial patterns of high-frequency brain signals in childhood epilepsy using a non-invasive technology. Methods. Thirty children with clinically diagnosed epilepsy were studied using a whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. MEG data were digitized at 4 000 Hz. The frequency and spatial characteristics of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals were analyzed using continuous wavelet transform and beamformer. Threedimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained for each patient to localize magnetic sources. Results. Twenty-six patients showed highfrequency (100-1 000 Hz) components (26/30, 86%). Nineteen patients showed more than one high-frequency component (19/30, 63%). The frequency range of high-frequency components varied across patients. The highest frequency band was identified around 910 Hz. The loci of high-frequency epileptic activities were concordant with the lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging for 21 patients (21/30, 70%). The MEG source localizations of high-frequency components were found to be concordant with intracranial recordings for nine of the eleven patients who underwent epilepsy surgery (9/11, 82%). Conclusion. The results have demonstrated that childhood epilepsy was associated with high-frequency epileptic activity in a wide frequency range. The concordance of MEG source localization, MRI and intracranial recordings suggests that measurement of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals might provide a novel approach for clinical management of childhood epilepsy

    Frequency and spatial characteristics of highfrequency neuromagnetic signals in childhood epilepsy

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    Purpose. Invasive intracranial recordings have suggested that high-frequency oscillation is involved in epileptogenesis and is highly localized to epileptogenic zones. The aim of the present study is to characterize the frequency and spatial patterns of high-frequency brain signals in childhood epilepsy using a non-invasive technology. Methods. Thirty children with clinically diagnosed epilepsy were studied using a whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. MEG data were digitized at 4 000 Hz. The frequency and spatial characteristics of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals were analyzed using continuous wavelet transform and beamformer. Threedimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained for each patient to localize magnetic sources. Results. Twenty-six patients showed highfrequency (100-1 000 Hz) components (26/30, 86%). Nineteen patients showed more than one high-frequency component (19/30, 63%). The frequency range of high-frequency components varied across patients. The highest frequency band was identified around 910 Hz. The loci of high-frequency epileptic activities were concordant with the lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging for 21 patients (21/30, 70%). The MEG source localizations of high-frequency components were found to be concordant with intracranial recordings for nine of the eleven patients who underwent epilepsy surgery (9/11, 82%). Conclusion. The results have demonstrated that childhood epilepsy was associated with high-frequency epileptic activity in a wide frequency range. The concordance of MEG source localization, MRI and intracranial recordings suggests that measurement of high-frequency neuromagnetic signals might provide a novel approach for clinical management of childhood epilepsy

    Methylprednisolone as Adjunct to Endovascular Thrombectomy for Large-Vessel Occlusion Stroke

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    Importance It is uncertain whether intravenous methylprednisolone improves outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO) undergoing endovascular thrombectomy. Objective To assess the efficacy and adverse events of adjunctive intravenous low-dose methylprednisolone to endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke secondary to LVO. Design, Setting, and Participants This investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was implemented at 82 hospitals in China, enrolling 1680 patients with stroke and proximal intracranial LVO presenting within 24 hours of time last known to be well. Recruitment took place between February 9, 2022, and June 30, 2023, with a final follow-up on September 30, 2023.InterventionsEligible patients were randomly assigned to intravenous methylprednisolone (n = 839) at 2 mg/kg/d or placebo (n = 841) for 3 days adjunctive to endovascular thrombectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary efficacy outcome was disability level at 90 days as measured by the overall distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). The primary safety outcomes included mortality at 90 days and the incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 48 hours. Results Among 1680 patients randomized (median age, 69 years; 727 female [43.3%]), 1673 (99.6%) completed the trial. The median 90-day modified Rankin Scale score was 3 (IQR, 1-5) in the methylprednisolone group vs 3 (IQR, 1-6) in the placebo group (adjusted generalized odds ratio for a lower level of disability, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.96-1.25]; P = .17). In the methylprednisolone group, there was a lower mortality rate (23.2% vs 28.5%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98]; P = .03) and a lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (8.6% vs 11.7%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-0.99]; P = .04) compared with placebo. Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to LVO undergoing endovascular thrombectomy, adjunctive methylprednisolone added to endovascular thrombectomy did not significantly improve the degree of overall disability.Trial RegistrationChiCTR.org.cn Identifier: ChiCTR210005172

    Well-being and Anticipation for Future Positive Events: Evidences from an fMRI Study

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    Anticipation for future confers great benefits to human well-being and mental health. However, previous work focus on how people’s well-being correlate with brain activities during perception of emotional stimuli, rather than anticipation for the future events. Here, the current study investigated how well-being relates to neural circuitry underlying the anticipating process of future desired events. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 participants were scanned while they were performing an emotion anticipation task, in which they were instructed to anticipate the positive or neutral events. The results showed that bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) were activated during anticipation for positive events relative to neutral events, and the enhanced brain activation in MPFC was associated with higher level of well-being. The findings suggest a neural mechanism by which the anticipation process to future desired events correlates to human well-being, which provide a future-oriented view on the neural sources of well-being

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the uterine cervix identified on the liquid-based cytology: a case report

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    Abstract Background Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) occurring in the female genital tract are rare, and typically found in the uterine corpus. PEComa occurring in the cervix is extremely rare, and very few cases have been reported till now. Cytological diagnosis of cervical PEComa is even rarer. So far, only two cases of PEComa diagnosed by conventional cervical smears have been reported. Case presentation A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with abnormal vagina discharge for 3 months. A liquid-based cytology test was performed. Microscopically, some loosely cohesive epithelioid cells were uniform with abundant clear cytoplasm, showing predominantly round or oval nuclei with finely stippled chromatin. Distinct round nucleoli were visible in some cells, notably with numerous melanin pigments in the cytoplasm. The cytopathological features were well correlated with cell block and histopathological findings. Upon immunohistochemistry (IHC), the tumor cells were positive for HMB45 and TFE3, focally positive for MelanA, while negative for muscle marker. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed TFE3 gene rearrangement. The final pathological diagnosis was PEComa identified by the liquid-based cytology, cell block, cervical biopsy, IHC and FISH result. The patient underwent a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and was followed up for 2 years with no evidence of disease. Conclusion The cytologic characteristics of the tumor can provide sufficient clues for PEComa diagnosis, which includes loosely cohesive, epithelioid morphology with abundant clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm, low-grade nuclear atypia, cytoplasmic melanin pigments. This will help cytopathologists to recognize this rare tumor that occurred in the cervix, and the combination of predictive morphology evaluation, immunophenotype, and molecular testing can achieve the definitive diagnosis of PEComa
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