501 research outputs found

    Numerical Simulation of Radio Signal from Extended Air Showers

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    The burst of radio emission by the extensive air shower provides a promising alternative for detecting ultra-high energy cosmic rays.We have developed an independent numerical program to simulate these radio signals. Our code is based on a microscopic treatment, with both the geosynchrotron radiation and charge excess effect included. Here we make a first presentation of our basic program and its results. The time signal for different polarizations are computed, we find that the pulses take on a bipolar pattern, the spectrum is suppressed towards the lower frequencies.We investigate how the shower at different heights in atmosphere contribute to the total signal, and examine the signal strength and distribution at sites of different elevations. We also study the signal from showers of different inclination angles and azimuth directions. In all these cases we find the charge excess effect important.Comment: 23 pages, 14 figure

    Particle decays during the cosmic dark ages

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    We consider particle decays during the cosmic dark ages with two aims: (1) to explain the high optical depth reported by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and (2) to provide new constraints to the parameter space for decaying particles. We delineate the decay channels in which most of the decay energy ionizes and heats the intergalactic medium gas [and thus affects the cosmic microwave background (CMB)], and those in which most of the energy is carried away—e.g. photons with energies 100 keV<~E<~1 TeV—and thus appears as a contribution to diffuse x-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds. The new constraints to the decay-particle parameters from the CMB power spectrum thus complement those from the cosmic x-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds. Although decaying particles can indeed produce an optical depth consistent with that reported by WMAP, in so doing they produce new fluctuations in the CMB temperature and polarization power spectra. For decay lifetimes less than the age of the Universe, the induced power spectra generally violate current constraints, while the power spectra are usually consistent if the lifetime is longer than the age of the Universe

    Three-Body Annihilation of Neutralinos Below Two-Body Thresholds

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    We calculate the cross section for s-wave neutralino annihilation to three-body final states below the W^+ W^- and t-bar t thresholds. Such three-body channels may dominate the annihilation cross section if the neutralino mass is not too much less than m_t and m_W respectively. Furthermore, because neutrinos produced in these channels are much more energetic than those from the bbˉb\bar{b} or tau^+ tau^- channels, they can dominate the energetic-neutrino fluxes from neutralino annihilation in the Sun or Earth far below these thresholds and significantly enhance the neutrino signal in certain regions of the supersymmetric parameter space.Comment: 19 pages, 8 postscript figures, use JHEP.cl

    Relic Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Quintessence

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    We investigate the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in quintessence model with a kination phase. The analytic calculation of the asymmetric Dark Matter in the standard cosmological scenario is extended to the nonstandard cosmological scenario where we specifically discuss the quintessence model with a kination phase. We found that the enhancement of Hubble rate changes the relic density of particles and anti--particles. We use the present day Dark Matter abundance to constrain the Hubble rate in quintessence model with a kination phase for asymmetric Dark Matter.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figure

    Type Ia supernovae as speed sensors at intermediate redshifts

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    The application of large scale peculiar velocity (LSPV), as a crucial probe of dark matter, dark energy and gravity, is severely limited by measurement obstacles. We show that fluctuations in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) fluxes induced by LSPV offer a promising approach to measure LSPV at intermediate redshifts. In the 3D Fourier space, gravitational lensing, the dominant systematical error, is well suppressed, localized and can be further corrected effectively. Advance in SN observations can further significantly reduce shot noise induced by SN intrinsic fluctuations, which is the dominant statistical error. Robust mapping on the motion of the dark universe through SNe Ia is thus feasible to z∌0.5z\sim 0.5.Comment: 6 pages, 1 figure. v2: expanded discussions. Accepted to PRD. Also refer to the news report at Physics world http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/3509

    TeV cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra in the myriad model II

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    Recent observations show that the cosmic ray nuclei spectra start to harden above 100 GeV, in contradiction with the conventional steady-state cosmic ray model. We had suggested that this anomaly is due to the propagation effect of cosmic rays released from local young cosmic ray sources, the total flux of the cosmic ray should be computed with the myriad model, where contribution from sources in local catalog is added to the background. However, while the hardening could be elegantly explained in this model, the model parameters obtained from the fit skew toward a region with fast diffusion and low supernova rate in the Galaxy, in tension with other observations. In this paper, we further explore this model in order to set up a concordant picture. Two possible improvements related to the cosmic ray sources have been considered. Firstly, instead of the usual axisymmetric disk model, we considered a spiral model of source distribution. Secondly, for the nearby and young sources which are paramount to the hardening, we allow for an energy-dependent escape time. We find that major improvement comes from the energy-dependent escape time of the local sources, and with both modifications, not only the cosmic ray proton and helium anomalies are solved, but also the parameters attain reasonable range values compatible with other analysis.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in RA