410 research outputs found

    Preparing to Multiply: Four Steps for Established Churches

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    How should a leader of an established church lead the church to multiply? With the increased attention to church planting, there are more resources available, but little attention is given to the established church. This article seeks to help the leader of an established church prepare to engage in multiplication. While strategy, best practices, and finances are vital components to church multiplication, the crucial starting point for an established church leader is to prepare. There are four places to look while in the preparation stage: inward, upward, outward, and around

    Book Review: Apostolic Church Planting: Birthing New Churches From New Believers by J.D. Payne

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    Book Review: The Prodigal Church: A Gentile Manifesto against the Status Quo by Jared C. Wilson

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    Green SOX for Investors: Requiring Companies to Disclose Risks Related to Climate Change

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    Phage based electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water using affinity reporter probes

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    The monitoring of drinking water for indicators of fecal contamination is crucial for ensuring a safe supply. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in drinking water. This strategy is based on the use of engineered bacteriophages (phages) to separate and concentrate target E. coli when conjugated with magnetic beads, and to facilitate the detection by expressing gold binding peptides fused alkaline phosphatase (GBPs-ALP). The fusion protein GBPs-ALP has both the enzymatic activity and the ability to directly bind onto a gold surface. This binding-peptide mediated immobilization method provided a novel and simple approach to immobilize proteins on a solid surface, requiring no post-translational modifications. The concentration of E. coli was determined by measuring the activity of the ALP on gold electrodes electrochemically using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). This approach was successfully applied in the detection of E. coli in drinking water. We were able to detect 105 CFU mL−1 of E. coli within 4 hours. After 9 hours of preincubation, 1 CFU of E. coli in 100 mL of drinking water was detected with a total assay time of 12 hours. This approach compares favorably to the current EPA method and has the potential to be applied to detect different bacteria in other food matrices

    DNA methyltransferase-3-dependent nonrandom template segregation in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

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    Asymmetry of cell fate is one fundamental property of stem cells, in which one daughter cell self-renews, whereas the other differentiates. Evidence of nonrandom template segregation (NRTS) of chromosomes during asymmetric cell divisions in phylogenetically divergent organisms, such as plants, fungi, and mammals, has already been shown. However, before this current work, asymmetric inheritance of chromatids has never been demonstrated in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and its molecular mechanism has remained unknown. Our results unambiguously demonstrate NRTS in asymmetrically dividing, differentiating human and mouse ESCs. Moreover, we show that NRTS is dependent on DNA methylation and on Dnmt3 (DNA methyltransferase-3), indicating a molecular mechanism that regulates this phenomenon. Furthermore, our data support the hypothesis that retention of chromatids with the old template DNA preserves the epigenetic memory of cell fate, whereas localization of new DNA strands and de novo DNA methyltransferase to the lineage-destined daughter cell facilitates epigenetic adaptation to a new cell fate

    Automated calibration and in‐line measurement of product quality during therapeutic monoclonal antibody purification using Raman spectroscopy

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    Current manufacturing and development processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies demand increasing volumes of analytical testing for both real-time process controls and high-throughput process development. The feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as an in-line product quality measuring tool has been recently demonstrated and promises to relieve this analytical bottleneck. Here, we resolve time-consuming calibration process that requires fractionation and preparative experiments covering variations of product quality attributes (PQAs) by engineering an automation system capable of collecting Raman spectra on the order of hundreds of calibration points from two to three stock seed solutions differing in protein concentration and aggregate level using controlled mixing. We used this automated system to calibrate multi-PQA models that accurately measured product concentration and aggregation every 9.3 s using an in-line flow-cell. We demonstrate the application of a nonlinear calibration model for monitoring product quality in real-time during a biopharmaceutical purification process intended for clinical and commercial manufacturing. These results demonstrate potential feasibility to implement quality monitoring during GGMP manufacturing as well as to increase chemistry, manufacturing, and controls understanding during process development, ultimately leading to more robust and controlled manufacturing processes
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