253,719 research outputs found

    Sustainability analysis of Chinese transport policy

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    Whilst the world economy is developed, the life and development of human beings have been threatened by the imbalance among environmental and ecological aspects. Thus sustainability is becoming increasingly the focus of various social fields. For most developing countries, a strategy with good sustainability for social development is of long-term significance to keep the economy in expansion. This paper first reviews the conceptual framework and up-to-date development of sustainability. Second, it reviews the current transport situation of China and its future demands. Third, the paper analyses transport policy from the viewpoints of energy consumption and environment pollution caused by transportation. It finally summarises suggestions for transport policy that China should consider in the future

    Atomic electron correlation in nuclear electron capture

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    The effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation on orbital electron capture by the nucleus was treated by the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock approach. The theoretical Be-7 L/K capture ratio was found to be 0.086, and the Ar-37 M/L ratio, 0.102. Both ratios were smaller than the independent particle predictions. Measurements exist for the Ar M/L ratio, and agreement between theory and experiment was excellent

    Multiplet effects on the L(2,3) fluorescence yield of multiply ionized Ar

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    The 2p fluorescence yield of argon in the presence of 0 to 6 3p holes was calculated by statistically averaging the fluorescence yields of initial state that consist of individual multiplet configurations. These configurations were formed by coupling the 2p vacancy to the partially filled 3p shell. Results agree reasonably well with experimental fluorescence yields deduced from ion-atom collision measurements

    Continuous Dynamical Decoupling with Bounded Controls

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    We develop a theory of continuous decoupling with bounded controls from a geometric perspective. Continuous decoupling with bounded controls can accomplish the same decoupling effect as the bang-bang control while using realistic control resources and it is robust against systematic implementation errors. We show that the decoupling condition within this framework is equivalent to average out error vectors whose trajectories are determined by the control Hamiltonian. The decoupling pulses can be intuitively designed once the structure function of the corresponding SU(n) is known and is represented from the geometric perspective. Several examples are given to illustrate the basic idea. From the physical implementation point of view we argue that the efficiency of the decoupling is determined not by the order of the decoupling group but by the minimal time required to finish a decoupling cycle

    From urban to national heat island: The effect of anthropogenic heat output on climate change in high population industrial countries

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    The project presented here sought to determine whether changes in anthropogenic thermal emission can have a measurable effect on temperature at the national level, taking Japan and Great Britain as type examples. Using energy consumption as a proxy for thermal emission, strong correlations (mean r2 = 0.90 and 0.89, respectively) are found between national equivalent heat output (HO) and temperature above background levels Δt averaged over 5‐ to 8‐yr periods between 1965 and 2013, as opposed to weaker correlations for CMIP5 model temperatures above background levels Δmt (mean r2 = 0.52 and 0.10). It is clear that the fluctuations in Δt are better explained by energy consumption than by present climate models, and that energy consumption can contribute to climate change at the national level on these timescales

    Two-flux Colliding Plane Waves in String Theory

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    We construct the two-flux colliding plane wave solutions in higher dimensional gravity theory with dilaton, and two complementary fluxes. Two kinds of solutions has been obtained: Bell-Szekeres(BS) type and homogeneous type. After imposing the junction condition, we find that only Bell-Szekeres type solution is physically well-defined. Furthermore, we show that the future curvature singularity is always developed for our solutions.Comment: 16 pages, Latex; typoes corrected; references added, minor modification

    A high specific capacity membraneless aluminum-air cell operated with an inorganic/organic hybrid electrolyte

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    Aluminum-air cells have attracted a lot of interests because they have the highest volumetric capacity density in theory among the different metal-air systems. To overcome the self-discharge issue of aluminum, a microfluidic aluminum-air cell working with KOH methanol-based anolyte was developed in this work. A specific capacity up to 2507 mAh g¯¹ (that is, 84.1% of the theoretical value) was achieved experimentally. The KOH concentration and water content in the methanol-based anolyte were found to have direct influence on the cell performance. A possible mechanism of the aluminum reactions in KOH methanol-based electrolyte was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon
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