731 research outputs found

    The Evidence Behind the Diagnostic Investigation of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

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    <p><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></p><p>There remains until recently an overall lack of clarity for the practical criteria for the diagnosis of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Signalment and an interictal neurological examination are vital for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. Despite the current insufficient evidence, the emerge of new diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum biomarkers, advanced functional neuroimaging techniques and electroencephalography, is likely to change the diagnostic approach in canine epilepsy in the near future.</p

    The Evidence Behind the Treatment of Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy

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    Oral phenobarbital and imepitoin in particular, followed by potassium bromide and levetiracetam are likely to be effective for the treatment of canine idiopathic epilepsy. There is strong evidence supporting the use of oral phenobarbital and imepitoin as ‘first line’ medications. However, there remains a lack of evidence for targeted treatment for the various individual epileptic phenotypes and quite limited evidence on direct comparisons of the efficacy between various anti-epileptic drugs

    Information Nonanticipative Rate Distortion Function and Its Applications

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    This paper investigates applications of nonanticipative Rate Distortion Function (RDF) in a) zero-delay Joint Source-Channel Coding (JSCC) design based on average and excess distortion probability, b) in bounding the Optimal Performance Theoretically Attainable (OPTA) by noncausal and causal codes, and computing the Rate Loss (RL) of zero-delay and causal codes with respect to noncausal codes. These applications are described using two running examples, the Binary Symmetric Markov Source with parameter p, (BSMS(p)) and the multidimensional partially observed Gaussian-Markov source. For the multidimensional Gaussian-Markov source with square error distortion, the solution of the nonanticipative RDF is derived, its operational meaning using JSCC design via a noisy coding theorem is shown by providing the optimal encoding-decoding scheme over a vector Gaussian channel, and the RL of causal and zero-delay codes with respect to noncausal codes is computed. For the BSMS(p) with Hamming distortion, the solution of the nonanticipative RDF is derived, the RL of causal codes with respect to noncausal codes is computed, and an uncoded noisy coding theorem based on excess distortion probability is shown. The information nonanticipative RDF is shown to be equivalent to the nonanticipatory epsilon-entropy, which corresponds to the classical RDF with an additional causality or nonanticipative condition imposed on the optimal reproduction conditional distribution.Comment: 34 pages, 12 figures, part of this paper was accepted for publication in IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2014 and in book Coordination Control of Distributed Systems of series Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 201

    Guidance and Control strategies for aerospace vehicles

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    A neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised for a nonlinear dynamic system with stochastic inputs and perfect measurements as applicable to fuel optimal control of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle. For the deterministic nonlinear dynamic system describing the atmospheric maneuver, a nominal trajectory was determined. Then, a neighboring, optimal guidance scheme was obtained for open loop and closed loop control configurations. Taking modelling uncertainties into account, a linear, stochastic, neighboring optimal guidance scheme was devised. Finally, the optimal trajectory was approximated as the sum of the deterministic nominal trajectory and the stochastic neighboring optimal solution. Numerical results are presented for a typical vehicle. A fuel-optimal control problem in aeroassisted noncoplanar orbital transfer is also addressed. The equations of motion for the atmospheric maneuver are nonlinear and the optimal (nominal) trajectory and control are obtained. In order to follow the nominal trajectory under actual conditions, a neighboring optimum guidance scheme is designed using linear quadratic regulator theory for onboard real-time implementation. One of the state variables is used as the independent variable in reference to the time. The weighting matrices in the performance index are chosen by a combination of a heuristic method and an optimal modal approach. The necessary feedback control law is obtained in order to minimize the deviations from the nominal conditions

    Observation of a Triangular to Square Flux Lattice Phase Transition in YBCO

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    We have used the technique of small-angle neutron scattering to observe magnetic flux lines directly in an YBCO single crystal at fields higher than previously reported. For field directions close to perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, we find that the flux lattice structure changes smoothly from a distorted triangular co-ordination to nearly perfectly square as the magnetic induction approaches 11 T. The orientation of the square flux lattice is as expected from recent d-wave theories, but is 45 deg from that recently observed in LSCO

    Direct observation of the flux-line vortex glass phase in a type II superconductor

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    The order of the vortex state in La_{1.9} Sr_{0.1} CuO_{4} is probed using muon spin rotation and small-angle neutron scattering. A transition from a Bragg glass to a vortex glass is observed, where the latter is composed of disordered vortex lines. In the vicinity of the transition the microscopic behavior reflects a delicate interplay of thermally-induced and pinning-induced disorder.Comment: 14 pages, 4 colour figures include