13 research outputs found

    Seed Starting the Microfoundations of Strategy: A Butterfly Effect?

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    In this paper we focus on the development of the literature on microfoundations of strategy. The objective is to identify the building blocks that make up the microfoundations framework. We start from two seed papers, Felin & Foss (2005) and Gavetti (2005), and combine bibliometrics with network analysis on a selective set of papers. This leads to the identification of papers that contain important building blocks and an assessment of the accumulation of knowledge for developing the argument on the role of individuals and their interactions in the context of routines and capabilities. Our main finding is that the microfoundations framework appears to be very comprehensive. It encompasses more than the role of individuals and their interaction which was our departure point based on the seed papers. The results reveal that it is a combination of individual, social and organizational characteristics, and mechanisms that enables the micro level to travel to the macro level. Moreover the findings show that the importance of aggregation was emphasized by the seed papers and most central papers that were analyzed in-depth. There is convergence in the literature that both components and emergence are contingent on the strategic phenomenon or problem under study. The study also revealed that the accumulation did not really occur as expected by the authors. We identified a citation network that resembles a butterfly, a small body in the center and two large wings. It seems there are two large clusters for the seed papers (the wings) and only a limited number of papers that build on the two papers (the body). The field is still legitimizing itself. Time will tell whether the field will integrate and converge more on the specifics of the microfoundations framework and transform from a butterfly into a caterpillar. Alternatively, more clusters may arise due to the study of specific strategy phenomena

    Learning patterns in early stage R&D projects : empirical evidence from the fibre raw material technology project in the Netherlands

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    Past research has reported that learning processes in early stage R&D are either chaotic, or absent. We challenge this finding by elaborating Van de Ven et al.'s trial-and-error learning model and explore an alternative conceptualization. We explored the combinations of positive and negative outcomes and action course continuation and modification. We use data gathered in an R&D setting of a 4-years pre-competitive knowledge generation project in the Dutch paper and board industry. Whereas the Van de Ven and Polley () approach applied on our data also would lead us to conclude that ‘no learning’ would happen, our decomposed model identified three distinct learning patterns: (1) a virtuous pattern of positive outcomes resulting in continuations of action courses; (2) a vacuous pattern of negative outcomes resulting in modifications of action courses; and (3) a verification pattern of positive outcomes resulting in modifications of action courses. We observed the virtuous and verification patterns during the first 2 years and virtuous and vacuous learning in the second 2 years. These results might be useful for R&D managers since they provide insight into how an early stage R&D project can develop and where managers might intervene and adjust action courses

    Seduced into collaboration : A resource-based choice experiment to explain make, buy or ally strategies of SMEs

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    When engaging in an innovation project, small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) can choose to engage in three different strategies: make, buy and ally (MBA). As collaborating firms are seen as more innovative, policy makers actively promote the ally strategy using various measures. However, when SMEs choose to engage in a particular MBA strategy is unknown. This study aims 1) to understand how the attributes of an innovation project lead to the choice for an MBA strategy for different latent classes of SMEs. This is done by linking the MBA strategies to a series of attributes of the innovation project using a discrete choice experiment that is conducted on 427 SMEs. We identify four latent classes of SMEs that have distinctive choice patterns: 1) externally oriented SMEs, 2) internally oriented SMEs, 3) collaborators and 4) flexible SMEs. We demonstrate that the choices of an MBA strategy are related to the SME's past behavior, and only externally oriented SMEs or flexible SMEs are likely to change their MBA strategy. Overall, measures for stimulating SMEs' ally strategies with other parties can seduce a substantial part of the population. However, policy makers should be aware that a significant number of SMEs are already collaborating, and these SMEs might benefit from policy measures without changing their behavior

    Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

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    The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of suggested ideas and detecting the ones that a company wants to implement can be problematic. Empirical research in this area is lacking. We therefore investigate which ideator and idea-related characteristics determine whether an idea for NPD is implemented by a crowdsourcing company. To answer this question, we use a cross-sectional research design to analyse publicly available data from an open idea call, run by an internationally active beverage producer. Our results reveal that ideators paying major attention to crowdsourced ideas of others, the idea popularity, as well as its potential innovativeness positively influence whether an idea is implemented by the crowdsourcing company. Counterintuitively, the motivation of an ideator, reflected in the number of ideas suggested, does not influence the likelihood of an idea being implemented

    Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

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    Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group), and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members) than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups

    Combining the technological innovation systems framework with the entrepreneurs’ perspective on innovation

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    For their technological sustainability innovations to become successful, entrepreneurs can strategically shape the technological field in which they are involved. The technological innovation systems (TISs) literature has generated valuable insights into the processes which need to be stimulated for the successful development and implementation of innovative sustainability technologies. To explore the applicability of the TIS framework from the perspective of entrepreneurs, we conducted a case study in the Dutch smart grids sector. We found that the TIS framework generally matches the perspectives of entrepreneurs. For its use by entrepreneurs, we suggest a slight adaptation of this framework. The process ‘Market formation’ needs to be divided into processes that are driven by the government and processes that are driven by entrepreneurs. There should be a greater emphasis on collaborative marketing, on changing user behaviour and preferences and on the development of fair and feasible business models

    Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

    No full text
    The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of suggested ideas and detecting the ones that a company wants to implement can be problematic. Empirical research in this area is lacking. We therefore investigate which ideator and idea-related characteristics determine whether an idea for NPD is implemented by a crowdsourcing company. To answer this question, we use a cross-sectional research design to analyse publicly available data from an open idea call, run by an internationally active beverage producer. Our results reveal that ideators paying major attention to crowdsourced ideas of others, the idea popularity, as well as its potential innovativeness positively influence whether an idea is implemented by the crowdsourcing company. Counterintuitively, the motivation of an ideator, reflected in the number of ideas suggested, does not influence the likelihood of an idea being implemented

    Correlation Table with Descriptive Statistics (N = 176).

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    <p>Notes.</p>*<p>p<.05;</p>**<p>p<.01;</p>a<p>0 = male, 1 = female; SD – standard deviation; IR – individual rationality; numbered columns represent the variables specified on respective rows.</p

    Results of the OLS Regression Analyses for Weak and Strong Cognitive Synergy (N = 176).

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    a†<p>p<.10;</p>*<p>p<.05;</p>**<p>p<.01;</p>***<p>p<.001,</p>b<p>0 = male, 1 = female,</p>c<p>0 = consultative, 1 = collaborative; BCaCI – bias corrected accelerated confidence intervals.</p
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