12,633 research outputs found

    Electron fractionalization in two-dimensional graphenelike structures

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    Electron fractionalization is intimately related to topology. In one-dimensional systems, fractionally charged states exist at domain walls between degenerate vacua. In two-dimensional systems, fractionalization exists in quantum Hall fluids, where time-reversal symmetry is broken by a large external magnetic field. Recently, there has been a tremendous effort in the search for examples of fractionalization in two-dimensional systems with time-reversal symmetry. In this letter, we show that fractionally charged topological excitations exist on graphenelike structures, where quasiparticles are described by two flavors of Dirac fermions and time-reversal symmetry is respected. The topological zero-modes are mathematically similar to fractional vortices in p-wave superconductors. They correspond to a twist in the phase in the mass of the Dirac fermions, akin to cosmic strings in particle physics.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Corner Junction as a Probe of Helical Edge States

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    We propose and analyze inter-edge tunneling in a quantum spin Hall corner junction as a means to probe the helical nature of the edge states. We show that electron-electron interactions in the one-dimensional helical edge states result in Luttinger parameters for spin and charge that are intertwined, and thus rather different than those for a quantum wire with spin rotation invariance. Consequently, we find that the four-terminal conductance in a corner junction has a distinctive form that could be used as evidence for the helical nature of the edge states.Comment: 4+ pages, 3 figure

    "Wormhole" geometry for entrapping topologically-protected qubits in non-Abelian quantum Hall states and probing them with voltage and noise measurements

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    We study a tunneling geometry defined by a single point-contact constriction that brings to close vicinity two points sitting at the same edge of a quantum Hall liquid, shortening the trip between the otherwise spatially separated points along the normal chiral edge path. This ``wormhole''-like geometry allows for entrapping bulk quasiparticles between the edge path and the tunnel junction, possibly realizing a topologically protected qubit if the quasiparticles have non-Abelian statistics. We show how either noise or simpler voltage measurements along the edge can probe the non-Abelian nature of the trapped quasiparticles.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figue