25 research outputs found

    Optimal decentralized spectral resource allocation for OFDMA downlink of femto networks via adaptive gradient vector step size approach

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    For the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) downlink of a femto network, the resource allocation scheme would aim to maximize the area spectral efficiency (ASE) subject to constraints on the radio resources per transmission interval accessible by each femtocell. An optimal resource allocation scheme for completely decentralized femtocell deployments leads to a nonlinear optimization problem because the cost function of the optimization problem is nonlinear. In this paper, an adaptive gradient vector step size approach is proposed for finding the optimal solution of the optimization problem. Computer numerical simulation results show that our proposed method is more efficient than existing exhaustive search methods

    Femtocell Networks: A Survey

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    The surest way to increase the system capacity of a wireless link is by getting the transmitter and receiver closer to each other, which creates the dual benefits of higher quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hotspots, distributed antennas, or relays. A less expensive alternative is the recent concept of femtocells, also called home base-stations, which are data access points installed by home users get better indoor voice and data coverage. In this article, we overview the technical and business arguments for femtocells, and describe the state-of-the-art on each front. We also describe the technical challenges facing femtocell networks, and give some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them.Comment: IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no.9, pp. 59-67, Sept. 200

    Coverage in Multi-Antenna Two-Tier Networks

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    In two-tier networks -- comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells, distributed antennas, or wired relays) -- with universal frequency reuse, the near-far effect from cross-tier interference creates dead spots where reliable coverage cannot be guaranteed to users in either tier. Equipping the macrocell and femtocells with multiple antennas enhances robustness against the near-far problem. This work derives the maximum number of simultaneously transmitting multiple antenna femtocells meeting a per-tier outage probability constraint. Coverage dead zones are presented wherein cross-tier interference bottlenecks cellular and hotspot coverage. Two operating regimes are shown namely 1) a cellular-limited regime in which femtocell users experience unacceptable cross-tier interference and 2) a hotspot-limited regime wherein both femtocell users and cellular users are limited by hotspot interference. Our analysis accounts for the per-tier transmit powers, the number of transmit antennas (single antenna transmission being a special case) and terrestrial propagation such as the Rayleigh fading and the path loss exponents. Single-user (SU) multiple antenna transmission at each tier is shown to provide significantly superior coverage and spatial reuse relative to multiuser (MU) transmission. We propose a decentralized carrier-sensing approach to regulate femtocell transmission powers based on their location. Considering a worst-case cell-edge location, simulations using typical path loss scenarios show that our interference management strategy provides reliable cellular coverage with about 60 femtocells per cellsite.Comment: 30 Pages, 11 figures, Revised and Resubmitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication

    A network approach to public goods

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    Abstract We study settings where each agent can exert costly effort that creates nonrival, heterogeneous benefits for some of the others. For example, municipalities can forgo consumption to reduce pollution. How do the prospects for efficient cooperation depend on asymmetries in the effects of players' actions? We approach this question by analyzing a network that describes the marginal benefits agents can confer on one another. The first set of results explains how the largest eigenvalue of this network measures the marginal gains available from cooperating; as an application, we describe the players whose participation is essential to achieving any Pareto improvement on an inefficient status quo. Next, we examine mechanisms all of whose equilibria are Pareto efficient and individually rational; an outcome is called robust if it is an equilibrium outcome in every such mechanism. Robust outcomes exist and correspond to the Lindahl public goods solutions. The main result is a characterization of effort levels at these outcomes in terms of players' centralities in the benefits network. It entails that an outcome is robust if and only if agents contribute in proportion to how much they value the efforts of those who help them

    Coexistence in femtocell-aided cellular architectures

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    textThe surest way to increase the capacity of a wireless system is by getting the transmitters and receivers closer to each other, which creates the dual bene¯ts of higher quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hotspots, distributed antennas, or relays. Compared to these deployments, a less expensive alternative for cellular operators is the recent concept of femtocells { also called home base-stations { which are end consumer installed data access points in the desire to get better indoor voice and data coverage. A two-tier network consisting of a conventional macrocell overlaid with shorter range wireless hotspots o®ers poten- tial capacity bene¯ts with low upfront costs to cellular operators. This dissertation addresses the key technical challenges inherent to a femtocell-aided cellular network, speci¯cally managing radio interference and providing reliable coverage at either tier, for di®erent physical layer technologies. Speci¯c contributions include 1) an uplink capacity analysis and interference avoidance in two-tier networks employing Code Di- vision Multiple Access (CDMA), 2) a decentralized power control scheme in two-tier networks with universal frequency reuse, 3) a coverage analysis of multi-antenna two- tier networks, and 4) spectrum allocation in two-tier networks employing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). The goal of this research is to inspire and motivate the use of decentralized interference management techniques requir- ing minimal network overhead in ongoing and future deployments of tiered cellular architectures.Electrical and Computer Engineerin

    Reducing Dynamic Power Consumption in Next Generation DS-CDMA Mobile Communication Receivers

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    Masters ThesisReduction of the power consumption in portable wireless receivers is an important consideration for next-generation cellular systems specified by standards such as the UMTS, IMT2000. This thesis explores the design-space for reducing the dynamic power dissipation in a RAKE receiver for the Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) downlink. Starting with a reference implementation of the DS-CDMA RAKE receiver, we demonstrate design methodologies for achieving significant power reduction, while highlighting the corresponding performance trade-offs. At the algorithm level, we investigate the impact of reduced precision and arithmetic complexity on the performance of the DS-CDMA RAKE receiver. We then present architectures for implementing the reference and reduced complexity DS-CDMA RAKE receivers, and analyze these architectures with respect to their dynamic power dissipation. Finally, we analyze clock-gating techniques for reducing the activity rate in both the architectures to achieve further power reduction.Noki