184 research outputs found

    Deterministic SR in a Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map

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    The phenomenon of Stochastic Resonance (SR) is observed in a completely deterministic setting - with thermal noise being replaced by one-dimensional chaos. The piecewise linear map investigated in the paper shows a transition from symmetry-broken to symmetric chaos on increasing a system parameter. In the latter state, the chaotic trajectory switches between the two formerly disjoint attractors, driven by the map's inherent dynamics. This chaotic switching rate is found to `resonate' with the frequency of an externally applied periodic perturbation (multiplicative or additive). By periodically modulating the parameter at a specific frequency ω\omega, we observe the existence of resonance where the response of the system (in terms of the residence-time distribution) is maximum. This is a clear indication of SR-like behavior in a chaotic system.Comment: 6 pages LaTex, 4 figure

    The travelling salesman problem on randomly diluted lattices: results for small-size systems

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    If one places N cities randomly on a lattice of size L, we find that the normalized optimal travel distances per city in the Euclidean and Manhattan metrics vary monotonically with the city concentration p. We have studied such optimal tours for visiting all the cities using a branch and bound algorithm, giving exact optimized tours for small system sizes (N<100). Extrapolating the results for N tending to infinity, we find that the normalized optimal travel distances per city in the Euclidean and Manhattan metrics both equal unity for p=1, and they reduce to about 0.74 and 0.94, respectively, as p tends to zero. Although the problem is trivial for p=1, it certainly reduces to the standard TSP on continuum (NP-hard problem) for p tending to zero. We did not observe any irregular behaviour at any intermediate point. The crossover from the triviality to the NP-hard problem seems to occur at p=1.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures. Revised version with changes in text and figures (to be published in Euro. Phys. Jour. B

    Fat tailed distributions for deaths in conflicts and disasters

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    We study the statistics of human deaths from wars, conflicts, similar man-made conflicts as well as natural disasters. The probability distribution of number of people killed in natural disasters as well as man made situations show power law decay for the largest sizes, with similar exponent values. Comparisons with natural disasters, when event sizes are measured in terms of physical quantities (e.g., energy released in earthquake, volume of rainfall, land area affected in forest fires, etc.) also show striking resemblances. The universal patterns in their statistics suggest that some subtle similarities in their mechanisms and dynamics might be responsible.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figs + 2 table

    Statistical mechanics of money: How saving propensity affects its distribution

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    We consider a simple model of a closed economic system where the total money is conserved and the number of economic agents is fixed. In analogy to statistical systems in equilibrium, money and the average money per economic agent are equivalent to energy and temperature, respectively. We investigate the effect of the saving propensity of the agents on the stationary or equilibrium money distribution.The equilibrium probablity distribution of money becomes the usual Gibb's distribution, characteristic of non-interacting agents, when the agents do not save. However with saving, even for local or individual self-interest, the dynamics become cooperative and the resulting asymmetric Gaussian-like stationary distribution acquires global ordering properties. Intriguing singularities are observed in the stationary money distribution in the market, as function of the ``marginal saving propensity'' of the agents.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures. Revised version with major changes in the text and figures (to appear in Euro. Phys. Jour. B

    Dynamic transitions and hysteresis

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    When an interacting many-body system, such as a magnet, is driven in time by an external perturbation, such as a magnetic field,the system cannot respond instantaneously due to relaxational delay. The response of such a system under a time-dependent field leads to many novel physical phenomena with intriguing physics and important technological applications. For oscillating fields, one obtains hysteresis that would not occur under quasistatic conditions in the presence of thermal fluctuations. Under some extreme conditions of the driving field, one can also obtain a non-zero average value of the variable undergoing such dynamic hysteresis. This non-zero value indicates a breaking of symmetry of the hysteresis loop, around the origin. Such a transition to the spontaneously broken symmetric phase occurs dynamically when the driving frequency of the field increases beyond its threshold value which depends on the field amplitude and the temperature. Similar dynamic transitions also occur for pulsed and stochastically varying fields. We present an overview of the ongoing researches in this not-so-old field of dynamic hysteresis and transitions.Comment: 30 Pages Revtex, 10 Postscript figures. To appear in Reviews of Modern Physics, April, 199